University of Cambridge
Template:Infobox British University The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom.
Early records no longer exist, but the university grew out of an association of scholars in the city of Cambridge, England, probably formed in 1209 by scholars escaping from the University of Oxford after a fight with local townsmen.
The universities of Oxford and Cambridge, jointly referred to as Oxbridge, have since had a long history of competing with each other, and are widely seen as the most elite and prestigious universities in the United Kingdom (see Oxbridge rivalry). Historically, they have produced a significant proportion of Britain's prominent scientists, writers and politicians.
Affiliates of Cambridge University have won a total of 81 Nobel Prizes Template:Fn, more than any other university in the world Template:Fn. Of these, 70 had attended Cambridge as undergraduates or graduate students, rather than as research associates, fellows, or professors. (The University of Chicago has the second highest number of affiliated Nobel Prize winners — 78 or arguably 79 — but only 30 had been students there.)
The university has often topped league tables ranking British universities (for instance, it was ranked first on the Sunday Times league table in 2005, a position it has occupied for 8 years running), and recent international league tables produced by The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University rated Cambridge third Template:Fn and second Template:Fn in the world respectively. The THES also ranked Cambridge first in science, second in biomedicine, third in the arts & humanities, sixth in technology, and eighth in social sciences. (Note that all university rankings are subject to controversy over their criteria; and that the THES and Jiao Tong tables are the only international rankings available).
Cambridge is a member of the Russell Group, a network of large, research-led British universities, the Coimbra Group, an association of leading European universities, and the LERU, the League of European Research Universities.
- 1 General information
- 2 History
- 3 Research and Teaching
- 4 Admission
- 5 Sports and recreation
- 6 Myths and legends
- 7 Miscellaneous
- 8 Colleges
- 9 Cambridge University in literature & popular culture
- 10 University Activities
- 11 References
The thirty-one colleges of the university are technically institutions independent of the university itself and enjoy considerable autonomy. For example, colleges decide which students they are to admit, and appoint their own fellows (senior members). They are responsible for the domestic arrangements and welfare of students and for small group teaching, referred to at the university as supervisions. In Cambridge, "the university" often means the University as opposed to the Colleges.
The current Chancellor of the university is HRH The Duke of Edinburgh. The current Vice-Chancellor is Professor Alison Richard. The office of Chancellor, who holds office for life, is mainly symbolic, while the Vice-Chancellor (as is usual at British universities) is the real executive chief. The University is governed entirely by its own members, with no outside representation in its governing bodies. Ultimate authority lies with the Regent House, of which all current Cambridge academic staff are members, but most business is carried out by the Council. The Senate consists of all holders of the M.A. degree or higher degrees. It elects the Chancellor, but otherwise has not had a major role since 1926.
Colleges were originally an incidental feature of the system: no college is as old as the university itself. They were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were also institutions without endowments, which were called Hostels at Cambridge but Halls at Oxford (which causes confusion since the terms College and Hall were used interchangeably in Cambridge).
The first college to be founded was Peterhouse, established in 1284 by Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely. Many of the colleges were founded during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but colleges continued to be established throughout the centuries that followed, right up to modern times. The most recent college to be established is Robinson, which was built in the late 1970s. In 2004, there were newspaper reports that Cambridge was planning on expanding its student numbers by adding three new colleges, but this has been denied by the university. A full list of colleges is given below.
In medieval times, colleges were founded so that their students would pray for the souls of the founders. For that reason, they were often associated with chapels or abbeys. However, in 1536, in conjunction with the dissolution of the monasteries, King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy." This led to a change in the focus of the colleges' curricula — away from canon law and towards the classics, the Bible, and mathematics.
A Cambridge exam for the Bachelor of Arts degree, the main first degree at Cambridge in both arts and science subjects, is known as a Tripos. Although the university now offers courses in a large number of subjects, it had a particularly strong emphasis on mathematics from the time of Isaac Newton until the mid-19th century, and study of this subject was compulsory for graduation. Students awarded first-class honours after completing the maths course were named wranglers. The mathematics Tripos was competitive and helped produce some of the most famous names in British science, including James Clerk Maxwell, Lord Kelvin, and Lord Rayleigh. However, some famous students, such as G. H. Hardy, disliked the system, feeling that people were too interested in accumulating marks in exams and not interested in the subject itself. Despite diversifying its research and teaching interests, Cambridge today maintains its strength in mathematics. The Isaac Newton Institute, part of the university, is widely regarded as the UK's national research institute for maths and theoretical physics.
Originally, all students were male. The first colleges for women were Girton College in 1869 and Newnham College in 1872. The first women students were examined in 1882 but attempts to make women full members of the university did not succeed until 1947, 20 years later than at Oxford. It is sometimes stated that Cambridge did not give degrees to women until this date; although true this is misleading. From the nineteenth century women were allowed to study courses, sit examinations, and have the result recorded; this was treated by other institutions as a degree. In the twentieth century women could be given a "titular degree". The difference was that without a full degree women were excluded from the governing of the university. Hence it was a denial of the vote rather than of a qualification. Because it was necessary to belong to a residential college, and all the old colleges were for men only, the number of women students was severely limited by the smaller number of women's colleges until the 1960s, when the men's colleges began to go mixed. One women's college (Girton) went mixed, but the others took the view that until the gender ratio problem was completely solved they should not limit the number of women's places by admitting men.
Of the current 31 colleges, 28 are mixed, while three admit women only (Lucy Cavendish, New Hall and Newnham). Two colleges admit graduate students only (Clare Hall and Darwin) and three colleges admit only graduate or mature undergraduate students (Wolfson, Lucy Cavendish and St Edmund's ).
Research and Teaching
The University has research departments and teaching faculties in most academic disciplines. Traditionally, Cambridge tends to have a slight bias towards more scientific subjects, but it also has a number of very strong humanities and social science faculties. Cambridge has a distinctive one-to-one or one-to-two supervisions system for teaching undergraduates, very similar to the tutorial system at Oxford. All research and lectures are conducted by University Departments; the Colleges are in charge of giving, or at least arranging, the supervisions, as well as accommodation and most extra-curricula activities. Over the past decade there has been a building boom within Cambridge University, with a substantial number of new specialist research laboratories being built at several University sites around the city.
Undergraduate admission to Cambridge colleges used to depend on knowledge of Latin and Ancient Greek, subjects taught principally in Britain at fee-paying schools, called public schools. This tended to mean that students came predominantly from members of the British social elite. In modern times, the admission process has changed. Since the 1960s, aspiring students are now expected to have the best, or nearly the best, possible qualifications at A-level relevant to the undergraduate course they are applying for and to impress college fellows at interview. In addition, in recent years admissions tutors in certain technical subjects, for example mathematics, have required applicants to sit the more difficult STEP papers in addition to achieving top grades in their A-levels. However, there is still considerable public debate in Britain over whether admissions processes at Oxford and Cambridge are entirely meritocratic and fair, and whether enough students from state schools are encouraged to apply to Cambridge, and whether they succeed in gaining entry. Almost half of the successful applicants come from public schools, but the average qualifications for these successful applicants are higher than for successful applicants from state schools. The lack of state school applicants to Cambridge and Oxford has been considered to have a negative impact on Oxbridge's reputation for many years, and the University has put substantial amounts of effort and money into encouraging children from state schools to apply for Cambridge and thus help redress the balance. Other critics counter that excessive government pressure to increase state school admissions may be an inappropriate and damaging form of social engineering (political science).
Graduate admission is decided by the faculty or department relating to the applicant's subject — following this, admission to a college (probably but not necessarily the applicant's preferred choice) is guaranteed.
Sports and recreation
There is a long tradition at Cambridge of student participation in sports and recreational pursuits. Rowing is a particularly popular sport and there are competitions between colleges (notably the bumps races) and against Oxford (the Boat Race). There are also Varsity matches against Oxford in many other sports, including rugby, cricket, chess and tiddlywinks. Representing the university in certain sports entitles the athlete to apply for a Cambridge Blue at the discretion of a Blues Committee consisting of the captains of the thirteen most prestigious sports. There is also the self-described "unashamedly elite" Hawks Club, whose membership is usually restricted to Cambridge blues or half-blues.
The Cambridge Union is a focus for politics and debating. There are also many drama societies, notably the Amateur Dramatic Club (ADC) and the comedy club Footlights. Student newspapers include the long-established Varsity and its younger rival, The Cambridge Student; broadcast journalism is represented by the student-run radio station, CUR1350.
Myths and legends
There are a number of popular myths associated with Cambridge University and its history, some of which should be taken less seriously than others.
One famous myth relates to Queens' College's so-called Mathematical Bridge (pictured right), which was supposedly constructed by Sir Isaac Newton to hold itself together without any bolts or screws. It was also supposedly taken apart by inquisitive students who were then unable to reassemble it without the use of bolts. The story is false, as the bridge was erected 22 years after Newton's death. It is thought that this myth arises from the fact that earlier versions of the bridge used iron pins and screws at the joints, whereas the current bridge uses nuts and bolts, which are more visible.
A true legend is that of the wooden spoon, which was the 'prize' awarded to the student with the lowest passing grade in the final examinations of the Mathematical Tripos. The last of many spoons was awarded in 1909 to Cuthbert Lempriere Holthouse, an oarsman of the Lady Margaret Boat Club of St John's College. It was over one metre in length, with an oar blade for a handle. From 1910, results were published alphabetically within class as opposed to score order, which made it harder to ascertain who the winner of the spoon was (unless there was only one person in the third class), and so reluctantly the practice was abandoned.
Building on its reputation for science and technology, Cambridge has a partnership with MIT in the United States, the Cambridge-MIT Institute. The university is also closely linked with many of the high-tech businesses in and around Cambridge, which form the area known as Silicon Fen. Cambridge businesses and the university have also been financially supported by several prominent figures in the technology world, including Gordon Moore of Intel Corporation and Bill Gates of Microsoft. In 2000, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation set up the Gates Scholarships to help students from outside the UK study at Cambridge. The University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory is also housed in a building partly funded by Gates and named after him.
After Cambridge was recognised as a Studium Generale in the 13th century, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to come and visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses.
In the Meiji Era (1868-1912), several Japanese students studied at the university.. In Japan, there is a Cambridge and Oxford Society, a rare example of the name Cambridge coming before Oxford when the two universities are referred to together — traditionally, the order used when referring to both universities is "Oxford and Cambridge", even though "C" precedes "O" in the Latin alphabet. The probable reason for this inversion is that the Cambridge Club was founded first in Japan, and it also had more members than its Oxford counterpart when they amalgamated in 1905.
Each Christmas Eve, BBC television and radio broadcasts The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols by the Choir of King's College Chapel, Cambridge - a national Christmas tradition which was first transmitted in 1928.
- Main article: Colleges of the University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge currently has 31 colleges, of which three admit only women (New Hall, Newnham and Lucy Cavendish). The remaining 28 are mixed, Magdalene being the last all-male college to admit women in 1988. Two colleges admit only postgraduates (Clare Hall and Darwin), and four more admit mainly mature students or graduate students (Hughes Hall, Lucy Cavendish, St Edmund's and Wolfson). The other 25 colleges admit mainly undergraduate students, but also postgraduates following courses of study or research. Although various colleges are traditionally strong in a particular subject, for example Churchill has a bias towards the sciences, the colleges all admit students from the whole range of subjects.
There are several historical colleges which no longer exist, such as King's Hall (founded in 1317) and Michealhouse which were combined together by King Henry VIII to make Trinity in 1546. Also, Gonville Hall was founded in 1348 and then re-founded in 1557 as Gonville & Caius.
There are also several theological colleges in Cambridge, (for example Westminster College and Ridley Hall Theological College) that are loosely affiliated with the university through the Cambridge Theological Federation.
See also the list of Fictional Cambridge Colleges
Cambridge University in literature & popular culture
- Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale takes place at Soler Halle - another name for King's Hall, which later became part of Trinity College, Cambridge.
- Porterhouse Blue and its sequel Grantchester Grind feature Porterhouse, a fictional Cambridge College.
- The Glittering Prizes by Frederic Raphael.
- Chariots of Fire, 1981 film
- Doctor Who episode Shada written by Douglas Adams
- Douglas Adams' Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency
- Darkness at Pemberley by T. H. White
- The Masters and the Affair by C.P. Snow (features an unnamed fictional college, partly based on his own college, Christ's)
- All Sorts and Conditions of Men by Sir Walter Besant
- For the sake of Elena by Elizabeth George.
- High Table, Lower Orders BBC Radio serial broadcast in 2005 based in a college with some resemblance to Magdalene.
- The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarter by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
- Eskimo Day is a 1996 BBC TV drama, written by Jack Rosenthal, and starring Maureen Lipman, Tom Wilkinson, and Alec Guinness, about the relationship between parents and teenagers during an admissions interview day at Queen's College, Cambridge. There was also a 1997 sequel, Cold Enough for Snow.
- The final episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation features the android character Data as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in his Cambridge college rooms, in a hypothetical future created by the omnipotent alien Q. An establishing location shot shows a futuristic version of the Cambridge University skyline around the year 2395.
- Civilization (computer game) - a classic turn-based strategy video game by Sid Meier features "Isaac Newton's College" as a Wonder of the World - this could be a reference to Cambridge University as a whole or to Trinity College, Cambridge specifically.
- Will Bailey, a White House staffer on The West Wing, a US television drama series, claimed to have been a "former president of the Cambridge Union on a Marshall Scholarship".
- A concise history of the University of Cambridge, by Elisabeth Leedham-Green, Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0521439787, ISBN 9780521439787
- A history of the University of Cambridge, by Christopher N.L. Brooke, Cambridge University Press, 4 volumes, 1988-2004, ISBN 0521328829, ISBN 052135059X, ISBN 0521350603, ISBN 052134350X
- Bedders, bulldogs and bedells: a Cambridge glossary, by Frank Stubbings, Cambridge 1995 ISBN 0521479789
- Japanese Students at Cambridge University in the Meiji Era, 1868-1912: Pioneers for the Modernization of Japan , by Noboru Koyama, translated by Ian Ruxton , Lulu Press, September 2004, ISBN 1411612566. This book includes information about the wooden spoon and the university in the 19th century as well as the Japanese students.
- Teaching and Learning in 19th century Cambridge, by J. Smith and C. Stray (ed.), Boydell Press, 2001 ISBN 0851157831
- The Architectural History of the University of Cambridge and of the Colleges of Cambridge and Eton, Robert Willis, Edited by John Willis Clark, 1988. Three volume set, Cambridge University Press ISBN 0521358515
- The Cambridge Apostles: A History of Cambridge University's Elite Intellectual Secret Society, by Richard Deacon, Cassell, 1985, ISBN 0947728139
- Douglas Adams (St John's)
- Alfred, Lord Tennyson (Trinity)
- Charles Babbage (Trinity, Peterhouse)
- Sir Francis Bacon (Trinity)
- Lord Byron (Trinity)
- John Cleese (Downing)
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge (Jesus)
- Oliver Cromwell (Sidney Sussex)
- Charles Darwin (Christ's)
- Paul Dirac (St John's)
- Nick Drake (Fitzwilliam)
- Desiderius Erasmus (Queens')
- E.M. Forster (King's)
- Stephen Fry (Queens')
- Jane Goodall (Newnham)
- Germaine Greer (Newnham)
- John Harvard (Emmanuel)
- William Harvey (Gonville & Caius)
- Stephen Hawking (Trinity Hall, Gonville & Caius)
- Ted Hughes (Pembroke)
- Lord Kelvin (Peterhouse)
- John Maynard Keynes (King's)
- Lawrence Lessig (Trinity)
- C. S. Lewis (Magdalene)
- Alfred Marshall (St John's)
- James Clerk Maxwell (Peterhouse, Trinity)
- Ian McKellen (St Catharine's)
- A. A. Milne (Trinity)
- John Milton (Christ's)
- Vladimir Nabokov (Trinity)
- Isaac Newton (Trinity)
- Sylvia Plath (Newnham)
- Salman Rushdie (King's)
- Bertrand Russell (Trinity)
- Ernest Rutherford (Trinity)
- Siegfried Sassoon (Clare)
- Simon Schama (Christ's)
- Amartya Sen (Trinity)
- Martin Sorrell (Christ's)
- John Sperling (King's)
- J.J. Thomson (Trinity)
- Emma Thompson (Newnham)
- Alan Turing (King's)
- John Venn (Gonville & Caius)
- William Wilberforce (St John's)
- Ludwig Wittgenstein (Trinity)
- William Wordsworth (St John's)
- Thomas Young (Emmanuel)
History and traditions
- Cambridge University Professorships, Chancellors and Vice-Chancellors
- List of Oxbridge sister colleges
- Oxbridge scarf colours
- Academic dress of the University of Cambridge
- Formal Hall (formal evening meals)
Societies and leisure activities
- See complete list on the University website
- The Boat Race against Oxford University
- Cambridge Apostles
- The Cambridge Union Society
- Cambridge University Association Football League
- CUR1350, the student radio station
- May Balls
- Varsity and TCS, the student newspapers
Organisations and institutions associated with the university
- Alumni & Fundraising
- Auto-ID Labs
- Cambridge Assessment (formally known as the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate)
- Cambridge Network - Cambridge University industry networking
- Cambridge Union
- Cambridge University Library
- Cambridge University Press
- Cambridge University Students' Union (CUSU)
- Coimbra Group
- Fitzwilliam Museum
- Granta literary magazine
- Kettle's Yard art gallery
- League of European Research Universities
- Russell Group
- Sidgwick Site
- West Cambridge
- Westminster Quarters
- Template:Fnb  - The list of Cambridge's 81 Nobel Prize winners, from the University of Cambridge's website.
- Template:Fnb  - A list of universities with the most Nobel Prize winner affliations. The University of Chicago has the second most with 78.
- Template:Fnb  - A 2005 ranking from The Times Higher Education Supplement of the world's research universities, with Cambridge ranked 3rd, behind Harvard and MIT.
- Template:Fnb  - A 2005 ranking from the Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University of the world's research universities, with Cambridge ranked 2nd, behind Harvard.
- University of Cambridge official website
- A Short History of the University – from the official website
- Varsity – a student newspaper
- The Cambridge Student (TCS) – a student newspaper
- CUR1350 – the student-run radio station
- Gown – the graduate magazine
- Cambridge University jargon
- Cambridge Online – a comprehensive city guide and directory with thousands of pages of local information contributed by Cambridge residents
- Computing-Info - Information for prospective students about computing and networking policies at the University and within the colleges
- Images and maps
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