The Velvet Underground
Although never commercially successful, The Velvet Underground remain one of the most influential bands of their time: a famous remark, often attributed to Brian Eno, is that while only a few thousand people bought a Velvet Underground record upon their initial release, almost every single one of them was inspired to start a band. This is certainly an overstatement, but it does demonstrate their massive influence and cult following that has outlasted the group's five-year existence.
The Velvet Underground were one of the first rock music groups to experiment heavily with the form by incorporating avant-garde influences. The group's often raw, sometimes difficult sound would influence many later punk, noise rock, and alternative music performers, and singer Lou Reed's lyrics brought new levels of social realism and sleaze to rock. Critics Scott Isler and Ira Robbins argue that "The Velvet Underground marked a turning point in rock history. After the release of The Velvet Underground and Nico, knowing the power of which it was capable, the music could never be as innocent, as unselfconscious as before." 
- 1 Early career
- 2 Enter Andy Warhol
- 3 The Velvet Underground and Nico (1967)
- 4 White Light/White Heat (1968)
- 5 The Velvet Underground (1969)
- 6 The fourth album (unreleased)
- 7 Loaded (1970)
- 8 1970 onwards
- 9 Reunion
- 10 Lineups
- 11 Discography
- 12 Sources
- 13 External links
The foundations for what would become The Velvet Underground were laid in late 1964. Lou Reed had performed with a few short-lived garage bands and had worked as a songwriter for Pickwick Records, a job Reed described as "a poor man's Carole King". Reed met John Cale, a Welshman who had moved to the United States to study classical music. Cale had worked with John Cage and LaMonte Young, but was also interested in rock music. (Young's use of extended drones would be a profound influence on the early Velvet's sound). The pair rehearsed and performed together, and their partnership and shared interests steered the early direction of what would become the Velvet Underground.
Reed's first group with Cale was the short-lived The Primitives, assembled to support a Reed-penned single, "The Ostrich".  Reed and Cale recruited Sterling Morrison – a college classmate of Reed's who'd already played with him a few times – to play guitar, and Angus MacLise joined on percussion. This quartet was first called The Warlocks, then The Falling Spikes.
The Velvet Underground was a book about sadomasochism by Michael Leigh that Reed and Morrison's friend Jim Tucker found lying in the street. Morrison has reported the group liked the name, considering it evocative of "underground cinema," and fitting, due to Reed's already having written "Venus In Furs", inspired by Leopold von Sacher-Masoch's book of the same name, also dealing with sadomasochism.
The newly named Velvet Underground rehearsed and performed in New York City. Their music was generally much more relaxed than it would later become: Cale described this era as reminiscent of beatnik poetry, with MacLise playing gentle "pitter and patter rhythms behind the drone".
In July of 1965, Reed, Cale and Morrison recorded a demo tape. When he briefly returned to England, Cale gave a copy of the tape to Marianne Faithfull, hoping she'd pass it on to Mick Jagger. Nothing ever came of the demo, and it was released on the 1995 box set Peel Slowly and See.
When the group accepted an offer of $75 for their first paying performance at Summit High School, in Summit, NJ, MacLise left the group, protesting what he considered commercialization. "Angus was in it for art", Morrison reported.
MacLise was replaced by Maureen "Moe" Tucker, Jim Tucker's younger sister. Tucker's abbreviated drum kit was rather unusual: She generally played on tom toms and an upturned bass drum, using mallets rather than drumsticks, and she rarely used cymbals. (The band having asked her to 'do something unusual', she turned her bass drum on its side, and played standing up. When her drums were stolen from one club, she replaced them with garbage cans, brought in from outside.) Her driving rhythms (at once simple yet exotic, influenced by Babatunde Olatunji and Bo Diddley records) became an essential part of the group's music. The group earned a regular paying gig at a club, and gained an early reputation as a promising ensemble.
While the American west coast was undergoing the Summer of Love, psychedelia and flower power, the typically east coast Velvets concerned themselves with darker subject matter: transvestites, heroin addiction, and sadomasochism. Also setting them apart from their contemporaries was their use of feedback and amplifier noise in a musical context, exemplified by the seventeen minute track "Sister Ray" from their second album.
Enter Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol became the band's manager in 1965, and suggested they feature the German singer Nico on several songs. Warhol's reputation certainly helped the band gain a higher profile. Though Reed eventually fired Warhol, he praised the integrity of his early efforts with the group. Warhol helped the band land a coveted recording contract with MGM's Verve Records, with himself as nominal 'producer', and gave the Velvets unprecedented free reign over the sound they created.
In 1966, MacLise temporarily rejoined the Velvet Underground for a few weeks when Reed was suffering from hepatitis and unable to perform at a number of scheduled concerts. For these appearances, Cale sang and played organ and Tucker switched to bass guitar. Also at these appearances, the band often played an extended jam they had dubbed "The Booker T", after the leader of the musical group Booker T & the MG's; the jam later became the music for "The Gift" on White Light/White Heat. Some of these performances have been released as a bootleg; they remain the only record of MacLise with the Velvet Underground.
The Velvet Underground and Nico (1967)
At Warhol's insistence, Nico joined the V.U. on their debut album, The Velvet Underground and Nico. The album was recorded in one or two days — there is some disagreement in the band members' memories — at TT&G Studios, and released by MGM Records in March of 1967.
The album cover was famous for its simple, suggestive Warhol design: a bright yellow banana with "Peel Slowly and See" printed near a perforated tab. Those who did remove the banana skin found a pink, phallic, peeled banana beneath. This would later be used as the cover to their boxed set, appropriately titled "Peel Slowly and See," released in 1995.
Eleven songs showcased their stylistic range, veering from the pounding attacks of "I'm Waiting For The Man" and "Run Run Run," the droning "Venus In Furs" and "Heroin" to the quiet "Femme Fatale" and the tender "I'll Be Your Mirror".
The overall sound was propelled by Reed's strong deadpan vocals, Cale's droning or shrieking viola, Morrison's often R&B or country-influenced guitar, and Tucker's hypnotically simple but steady, propulsive beat.
The Velvet Underground and Nico peaked at number 171 on Billboard Magazine's top 200 charts, but the promising debut was dampened somewhat by legal complications: The album's back cover featured a still from a Warhol motion picture, Chelsea Girls. The film's cinematographer, Eric Emerson, had been arrested for drug possession and, desperate for money, claimed the still had been included on the album without his permission. MGM Records pulled all copies of the album until the legal problems were settled (by which time the record had lost its modest commercial momentum), and the still was airbrushed out.
White Light/White Heat (1968)
The Velvet Underground performed live often, and their performances became louder, harsher and often featured extended improvisations. Cale reports that at about this time, The Velvet Underground were one of the first groups to receive an endorsement from Vox. The company pioneered a number of special effects, which the Velvet Underground utilized on White Light/White Heat.
Reed fired Warhol as manager, and Nico was jettisoned, partly due to her unreliability. In September 1967, the VU recorded what would become their second album, White Light/White Heat, with Tom Wilson as producer. It was released January 1968.
The recording was raw and oversaturated, one of the harshest, loudest records yet released. Cale has stated that while the debut had some moments of fragility and beauty, White Light/White Heat was "consciously anti-beauty". Isler and Robbins suggest that the record "is almost unbearably intense."
The title track and first song starts things off with Reed pounding on piano like a demented Jerry Lee Lewis. The eerie, hallucinatory "Lady Godiva's Operation" remains Reed's favorite track on the album.
Despite the dominance of noisefests like "Sister Ray", and "I Heard Her Call My Name", there was room for the darkly comic "The Gift", a Reed-penned short story narrated in Cale's deadpan Welsh accent. The meditative "Here She Comes Now" was later covered by Galaxie 500 and Nirvana.
In 1968, a year after Sgt. Pepper and Are You Experienced, there was an experimental feeling in much rock music. There were a few other experimentors with noise, but few were tackling noise with as much apparent glee as the V.U. White Light/White Heat was hugely important, and "Sister Ray" is possibly the most significant rock song of the late '60s. The type of calculated, noisy garage they were applying to three repeated chords for 20 minutes coupled with abstract, William Burroughs-influenced spontaneous lyrics, was completely unique. No one had done anything like it before and not many after, though it has been a profound influence on alternative music. "Sister Ray" is considered by many to be the first punk rock song, with its simple, pulsating drum beat, unrecognizably distorted guitars, Cale's psychotic, fuzzed-out organ, and Reed shouting lyrics like "I'm searching for my mainline... you know I couldn't hit it sideways."
The second album's cover was a subtle black-on-black picture of the tattooed arm of Billy Name, one of Warhol's "Factory" members. White Light/White Heat entered the Billboard top 200 chart for exactly one week, at number 199.
Tensions were growing: the group was tired of receiving little recognition for their hard work, and Reed and Cale were pulling the Velvet Underground in different directions. The differences showed in the last recording session the band had with John Cale in February 1968: two pop-like songs in Reed's direction ("Temptation Inside Your Heart" and "Stephanie Says"), and a viola-driven drone in Cale's direction ("Hey Mr Rain"). None of these songs were released until they were included on the VU and Another View compilation albums.
The Velvet Underground (1969)
It's often been reported that the early edition of the Velvet Underground was a struggle between Reed and Cale's creative impulses: Reed's rather conventional approach contrasted with Cale's experimentalist tendencies. The Velvet Underground would seem to prove the truth of these claims, as the harsh, abrasive tendencies on the first two records were almost entirely absent. This resulted in a gentler sound influenced by folk music, prescient of the songwriting style that would inform Reed's solo career post-V.U. (Another factor in the change of sound was the band's amplifiers being stolen from an airport while they were on tour; they obtained replacements by signing a new endorsement deal with Sunn.)
Morrison's ringing guitar parts and Yule's melodic bass guitar and harmony vocals are featured prominently on the album. Reed's songs and singing are subdued and confessional, and he shared lead vocals with Yule, particularly when his own voice would fail under stress. A rare Maureen Tucker vocal is featured on "After Hours", a song that Reed said was so innocent and pure he couldn't possibly sing it himself. The album's influence can be heard in many later indie rock and lo-fi recordings.
The fourth album (unreleased)
The Velvet Underground recorded a lot of material that was never officially released due to disputes with their record label. What many consider the prime of these sessions were released many years later as VU. This album had a transitional sound between the whisper-soft third album and the pop-rock anthems of their final record, Loaded.
The rest of the recordings, as well as some alternate takes, were bundled on Another View. After Reed's departure, he later reworked a number of these songs for his solo records ("Stephanie Says", "Ocean", "I Can't Stand It", "Lisa Says", "Coney Island Baby"). Indeed, most of Reed's early solo career's more successful hits were reworked old Velvet Underground tracks, released for the first time in their original version on VU, Another View, and later on Peel Slowly and See and The Quine Tapes.
In 1969, MGM Records president Mike Curb wanted to purge any drug- or hippie-related bands from MGM, and the V.U. were on his list, along with Frank Zappa's Mothers of Invention. (Nonetheless, MGM insisted on keeping the tapes of their unissued recordings.)
Atlantic Records signed the Velvet Underground for what would be their final studio album, Loaded, released on their subsidiary label Cotillion. The album's title refers to Atlantic's request that the band produce an album "loaded with hits." Though the record was not the smash hit the company had anticipated, it contains the most accessible pop the V.U. had performed, and several of Reed's best-known songs, including "Sweet Jane" and "Rock and Roll".
Though Tucker had retired from the group due to her pregnancy, she received a performance credit on Loaded. Drums were actually played by several people, including Yule, engineer Adrian Barber, sessioneer Tommy Castanaro, and Doug Yule's brother Billy, who was still in high school.
Disillusioned with the lack of progress the band was making and feeling pressured by manager Sesnick, Reed decided to quit the band and did so in August 1970. The band essentially broke while recording the album, and Reed walked off before it was finished. Doug Yule pushed on and finished the album, singing parts to some of Reed's vocal tracks. Lou Reed has often said he was completely surprised months later when he saw Loaded in stores. He also said, bitterly, "I left them to their album full of hits that I made."
Reed was particularly bitter about the truncation of a verse from "Sweet Jane". "New Age" was changed as well: as originally recorded, its closing line ("It's the beginning of a new age") was repeated many more times. A brief interlude in "Rock and Roll" was also removed. (Years later, the album would be reissued with the edits restored, but much of it was never recorded as Reed had originally intended.)
Although Loaded's spin-off single "Who Loves the Sun" did nothing, the album itself is something of a muted triumph. "Sweet Jane" and "Rock and Roll" became U.S. radio favourites, and the band, featuring Walter Powers III on bass, and Doug Yule promoted to lead vocals and guitar, went on the road once more, playing the East Coast of the U.S. and Europe. By that time, however, Sterling Morrison had obtained a B.A. degree in English, and left the group for an academic career with the University of Texas at Austin. His replacement was singer/keyboard player Willie Alexander. The band played shows in England, Wales, and the Netherlands, some of which are collected on the 2001 box set Final V.U. (Longtime fans began mocking the new lineup as the "Velveteen Underground".)
In 1972 Atlantic released Live at Max's Kansas City, a live bootleg of one of the Velvet Underground's final performances with Reed, recorded by fan Brigid Polk. Around this time Tucker departed, followed by the newer members, leaving Yule and manager Steven Sesnick alone with the band's name. Sesnick managed to secure a recording contract with Polydor Records in England, and Yule recorded Squeeze under the Velvet Underground name with Deep Purple drummer Ian Paice, and some unknown session players. Squeeze was a respectable, if not especially noteworthy effort, but was certainly not up to the standard established on the previous V.U. albums, and is generally not considered a "true" Velvet Underground recording, due to the lack of involvement of the original band members.
Lou Reed and John Cale, in the meantime, developed solo careers. Sterling Morrison was a professor for some time, teaching Medieval Literature at the University of Texas at Austin, then became a tugboat captain for several years. Maureen Tucker raised a family before returning to small-scale gigging and recording in the 1980s; Morrison was in a touring band before passing away from cancer in 1995. In 1988, erstwhile singer Nico died of a brain hemorrhage while bicycling on the island of Ibiza.
In 1990, Reed and Cale released Songs for Drella, dedicated to the recently deceased Andy Warhol. "Drella" was a nickname Warhol had adopted, a combination of "Dracula" and "Cinderella". Though Morrison and Tucker had each worked with Reed or Cale since the V.U. broke up, Songs for Drella was the first time the pair had worked together in decades, and rumors of a reunion began to circulate.
There was a brief reunion of the original lineup in 1993, resulting in a European tour — opening a few concerts for U2 — and a live album, Live MCMXCIII. Cale sang the songs Nico had performed with the group.
Before the band could tour the U.S. or record — an MTV Unplugged album was proposed — Cale and Reed fell out again, breaking up the band once more. The definitive end to the band's checkered career came when Sterling Morrison died of cancer in 1995.
In September 1995 the Velvet Underground Box Set, Peel Slowly and See, was released. It featured four albums, as well as rare demos, unreleased, and live takes. In 1996 the Velvet Underground was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. The remaining members, Reed, Cale, and Tucker, reunited to play "Last Night I Said Goodbye to a Friend," a tribute to their late guitarist Sterling Morrison, whose widow was present for the induction.
- Early 1965 – November 1965: Reed, Cale, Morrison, MacLise
- November 1965 – September 1968: Reed, Cale, Morrison, Tucker
- September 1968 – August 1970: Reed, Morrison, Yule, Tucker (with Billy Yule sitting in for Tucker during the summer of 1970)
- August 1970 – August 1971: Yule, Morrison, Powers, Tucker
- August 1971 – early 1972: Yule, Alexander, Powers, Tucker
- Early 1972 – early 1973: Doug Yule (with various sidemen and sessioneers)
- Late 1992 – early 1994: Reed, Cale, Morrison, Tucker (European reunion tour)
- Janurary 1996: Reed, Cale, Tucker (Rock & Roll Hall of Fame induction)
- "All Tomorrow's Parties" / "I'll Be Your Mirror" (recorded and released 1966)
- "Sunday Morning" / "Femme Fatale" (recorded and released 1966)
- "White Light/White Heat" / "Here She Comes Now" (recorded 1967, released 1968)
- "What Goes On" / "Jesus" (promo, recorded 1968, released 1969)
- "Who Loves the Sun" / "Oh! Sweet Nuthin'" (recorded 1970, released 1971)
- "Foggy Notion" / "I Can't Stand It" (promo, recorded 1969, released 1985)
- "Venus in Furs" / "I'm Waiting for the Man" (live, recorded 1993, released 1994)
- The Velvet Underground and Nico (recorded 1966, released 1967; "Deluxe" 2CD edition 2002)
- White Light/White Heat (recorded 1967, released 1968)
- The Velvet Underground (recorded 1968, released 1969)
- Loaded (recorded and released 1970; "Fully Loaded" 2CD edition 1997)
- Live at Max's Kansas City (recorded 1970, released 1972; "Deluxe" 2CD edition 2004)
- Squeeze (recorded 1972, released 1973)
- Live MCMXCIII (recorded and released 1993)
Later releases of archive material
- 1969: The Velvet Underground Live (recorded 1969, released 1974)
- VU (recorded 1968-1969, released 1985)
- Another View (recorded 1967-1969, released 1986)
- Peel Slowly and See (box set, recorded 1965-1970, released 1995)
- Final V.U. (live box set, recorded 1971-1973, released 2001)
- Bootleg Series, Vol. 1: The Quine Tapes (live, recorded 1969, released 2001)
- The Very Best of the Velvet Underground (recorded 1966-1970, released 2003)
- Untitled essay by David Fricke from Peel Slowly and See
- "The Velvet Undergound Web Page" - The Velvet Underground Web Page
- "The Velvet Forum" - A Velvet Underground discussion forum
- "Foggy Notion" - a Velvet Underground web corner featuring extensive bio, annotated discography, articles, and related listening tips
- "Lou Reed Guitar Archive" - Velvet Underground and Lou Reed solo gear, chords and lyrics pages
- "Velvet Underground Squeeze" - essay entirely devoted to the Velvet Underground's last album
- "The Velvet Underground" at AdrianDenning.co.uk - The Velvet Underground's page at Adrian Denning's album review site
- "The Velvet Underground" at George Starostin's Classic Rock and Pop Album Reviews - A page including a description of the band, reviews of their albums, and reviews of albums from the members' solo careers
- "Velvet Underground" at Piero Scaruffi's history of rock page - a long and informative essay/review on the band
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