- 1 History
- 2 Politics
- 3 Administrative divisions
- 4 Geography
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Identities
- 8 Religion
- 9 Culture
- 10 International rankings
- 11 Further reading
- 12 Miscellaneous topics
- 13 External links
Main article: History of Spain
The aboriginal peoples of the Iberian peninsula, consisting of a number of separate tribes, are given the generic name of Iberians. This may have included the Basques, the only pre-Celtic people in Iberia surviving to the present day as a separate ethnic group. The most important culture of this period is that of the city of Tartessos. Beginning in the 9th century BC, Celtic tribes entered the Iberian peninsula through the Pyrenees and settled throughout the peninsula, becoming the Celtiberians.
Around 1,100 BC Phoenician merchants founded the trading colony of Gadir or Gades (modern day Cádiz) near Tartessos. In the 8th century BC the first Greek colonies, such as Emporion (modern Empúries), were founded along the Mediterranean coast on the East, leaving the south coast to the Phoenicians. The Greeks are responsible for the name Iberia, after the river Iber (Ebro in Spanish). In the 6th century BC the Carthaginians arrived in Iberia while struggling with the Greeks for control of the Western Mediterranean. Their most important colony was Carthago Nova (Latin name of modern day Cartagena).
The Romans arrived in the Iberian peninsula during the Second Punic war in the 2nd century BC, and annexed it under Augustus after two centuries of war with the Celtic and Iberian tribes and the Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian colonies becoming the province of Hispania. It was divided in Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior during the late Roman Republic; and, during the Roman Empire, Hispania Taraconensis in the northeast, Hispania Baetica in the south and Lusitania in the southwest.
Hispania supplied the Roman Empire with food, olive oil, wine and metal. The emperors Trajan, Hadrian and Theodosius I, the philosopher Seneca and the poets Martial and Lucan were born in Spain. The Spanish Bishops held the Council at Elvira in 306.
Most of Spain's present languages, religion, and laws originate from this Roman period.
In the 8th century, nearly all the Iberian peninsula, which had been under Visigothic rule, was quickly conquered (from 711), by Muslims (the Moors), who had crossed over from North Africa, as part of the expansion of the Umayyad empire. Only three small counties in the north kept their independence: Asturias, Navarra and Aragon, which eventually became kingdoms.
Very soon the Muslim emirate split into small kingdoms. Christian and Muslim kingdoms fought and allied among themselves, with the Christians driving the Moorish forces out of the northern most parts of the peninsula within a few decades. The Muslim taifa kings competed in patronage of the arts, and the Jewish population of Iberia set the basis of Sephardic culture. Much of Spain's distinctive art originates from this seven-hundred-year period, and many Arabic words made their way into Castilian (Spanish) and Catalan, and from them to other European languages.
The Moorish capital was Córdoba, in the southern portion of Spain known as Andalucía. During the time of Arab occupation, most of the Iberian peninsula was in relative peace, with large populations of Jews, Christians and Muslims living in close quarters, and at its peak some non-Muslims were appointed to high offices. At its best it produced great architecture, art, and great Muslim and Jewish scholars played a great part in reviving the study of ancient Greek philosophy, making their own important contributions to it, and becoming one of the most important ways by which these studies were revived in Europe, with historic consequences. However there were also restrictions and imposts on non-Muslims, which tended to grow after the death of Al-Hakam III in 976, and worsened after the fall of Al-Andalus in 1031. Later waves of stricter Muslim groups from north Africa even led to some persecutions of non-Muslims, forcing some (including some Muslim scholars) to seek safety in the then still relatively tolerant city of Toledo after its Christian conquest in 1085.
The long, convoluted period of expansion of the Christian kingdoms, beginning in 722, only eleven years after the Moorish invasion, is called the Reconquista. As early as 739, the northwestern region of Galicia, which hosted one of the most important centres of western medieval Christian pilgrimage, Santiago de Compostela, had been liberated from Moorish occupation by forces from neighbouring Asturias. The 1085 conquest of the central city of Toledo had largely brought to an end the reconquest of the northern half of Iberia. The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 heralded the collapse, within a few decades, of the great Moorish strongholds, such as Seville and Córdoba, in the south-west. By the middle of the thirteenth century most of the Iberian peninsula had been reconquered, leaving only Granada as a small tributary state in the south. It ended in 1492, when Isabella and Ferdinand captured the southern city of Granada, the last Moorish city in Spain. The Treaty of Granada  guaranteed religious toleration toward Muslims while Jews were expelled that year. A 1499 Muslim uprising was crushed and was followed by the first of the expulsions of Muslims, in 1502, from Isabel's and Ferdinand's new, combined, Christian kingdom. The year 1492 was also marked by the discovery of the New World. The queen and the king funded the history changing voyages of Columbus. The defeats of the French army, by relying more on well trained regular soldiers and the heavy use of hand guns and cannon against armoured knights, in the Italian Wars from 1494, saw the emergance of the new kingdom as a European superpower.
Renaissance in Spain
Until the late of the 15th century, Castile and Léon, Aragon and Navarre were independent states, with independent languages, monarchs, armies and, in the case of Aragon and Castile, two empires: the former with one in the Mediterranean and the new, rapidly growing one in the Americas. The process of political unification continued into the early sixteenth century. It was the unification of these seperate Iberian empires that became the base of what is in now referred to as the Spanish Empire.
By 1512, most of the kingdoms of present-day Spain were politically unified, although not as a modern, centralized state (in contemporary minds, "Spain" was a geographic term meaning Iberian Peninsula, not the present-day state called Spain). The grandson of Isabella and Ferdinand, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor but called in Spain Carlos I, extended his crown to other places in Europe and the rest of the world. The unification of Iberia was complete when Charles V's son, Philip II, became King of Portugal in 1580, as well as of the other Iberian Kingdoms (collectively known as "Spain" at that time).
During the 16th century, under the reigns of Charles V and Philip II, Spain became the most powerful nation in Europe. The Spanish Empire covered most territories of South and Central America, Mexico, some of Eastern Asia (including The Philippines), the Iberian peninsula (including Portugal and its empire from 1580), southern Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands.
It was also the wealthiest nation in Europe, but the uncontrolled influx of goods and minerals from Spain's colonies in the Americas resulted in rampant inflation and economic depression. Religious wars supported by the Spanish crown, especially in the Netherlands, further burdened the empire's economy.
In 1640, under Philip IV, the centralist policy of the Count-Duke of Olivares provoked wars in Portugal and Catalonia. Portugal became an independent kingdom again, taking with it its empire, and Catalonia enjoyed some years of French-supported independence but was quickly returned to the Spanish Crown, except Roussillon.
A series of long and costly wars and revolts followed in the early 17th century, and began a steady decline of Spanish power in Europe from the 1640s. Controversy over succession to the throne consumed the country and much of Europe during the first years of the 18th century (see War of the Spanish Succession). It was only after this war ended and a new dynasty—the French Bourbons—was installed that a centralized Spanish state was established and the first Bourbon king Philip V of Spain in 1707 dissolved the Aragon court and unified the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon into a single kingdom of Spain, abolishing many of the regional privileges and autonomy (fueros) that had hampered the Habsburgs.
Of note during the 17th century was the cultural effloresence now known as the Spanish Golden Age.
Spain was occupied by Napoleon in the early 1800s, but the Spaniards rose in arms in a ferocious guerilla war. After the War of Independence (1808–1814), a series of revolts and armed conflicts between Liberals and supporters of the ancien régime lasted throughout much of the 19th century, complicated by a dispute over dynastic succession by the Carlists which led to three civil wars. After that, Spain was briefly a Republic, from 1871 to 1873, a year in which a series of coups reinstalled the monarchy.
In the meantime, Spain lost all of its colonies in the Caribbean region and Asia-Pacific region during the 19th century, a trend which ended with the loss of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam, Micronesia, Palau, Northern Marianas and Marshall Islands to the United States after the Spanish-American War of 1898.
Historically, the period of the mid 17th century to the early 20th centuries was a failure for the Spanish state compared to Northern Europe. The lingering decline of the Spanish empire was long-lasting, due in large part, ironically, to its spectacular earlier successes in the 15th and 16th centuries that led to the centuries of treasure fleets that had brought large quantities of silver and gold into the country from the American mines and spices and luxuries from Asia across the Pacific. These shipments engendered inflation that ate away at Spanish trades, crafts and commerce, making the country almost totally dependant upon imports and thereby undermined its long term economic development. In fact some of the precursors of a modern view of economics was initiated by observations of this corrosive inflationary process by the School of Salamanca. The Spanish economy was effectively hollowed out in the late 16th and early 17th centuries of the skills, industry and infrastructure that would be needed to replace the income from the American mines as they petered out during the middle and late 17th century. Making things worse were the constant wars defending the vast world empire against jealous rivals, internal splits and the European wars, especially the Thirty Years War and Eighty Years War where Spain's energies were constantly drained defending the Habsburg's dynastic and religious interests, including the Counter Reformation, burdening the people with taxes and military duties and diverting massive resources away from essential infrastructure such as roads - a necessary precondition to modernising such a dispersed and rugged country. It is a fact that even at the peak of the inflow of precious metals from America in the last decade of the 16th century, the main source of the crown's revenues were taxes on ordinary people. This combination of a hollowed out, unadaptable economy, the endless burden of wars and the diminished precious metals revenue led to steep economic and demographic decline in the middle and late 17th century, aggravated by failed harvests and plagues. Given the hardships it is astonishing that the Habsburg dominions held together at all at this time. There was a period of slow recovery and even some modernisation, throughout the eighteenth century, and even the beginnings of industrialisation in Catalonia, and modernisation and expansion of the iron and steel industries in the Basque country, and a spectacular growth (from a relatively low base) in general trade in the last two decades of that century, but this promising turnaround was totally disrupted by the turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars at the beginning of the 19th century that soon triggered the loss of the vast American territories and plunged the country into endemic political instability, which except for short periods, lasted until the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939 - the fourth civil war in less than a century and a half. Pockets of modernity in Catalonia and the north would appear, but Spain's economic and political relative decline overall mirrored in general, if not in detail, the fate of other regions of Southern Europe such as Portugal, the Italian states, the Balkans and central Europe, as much of the rapidly growing global oceanic trade, pioneered by Spain and Portugal, was diverted to northwestern Europe.
Although cultural contacts with Asian and African nations across the Mediterranean enriched the cultural mosaic of the region in terms of food, music, literature, architecture they did little to solve the region's social and economic challenges.
Futhermore Islam, as well as the Roman culture, placed little emphasis on technological education or sustainable economic development. For centuries, the region was full of frontiersmen from both Christian and Muslim sides looking for loot, revenge and destruction of their enemies. These influences led to Spain being over-run by a numerous nobility that wished only to serve in the military or government service and were not interested in industry or trade. This attitude was especially pronounced in the south. This problem was in fact recognised by the Enlightenment era Bourbon reformers in the 18th century who tried to "ennoble" the trades. Indeed it also goes back to Charles I's way of dealing with the popular uprising known as the Castilian War of the Communities (1520 - 1522), where he suppressed the uprising caused by the burdens of excessive foreign adventurism in Europe by re-instating the power and privileges (such as not paying taxes) of the nobility to win their support. In short, as the medieval nobility were steadily losing their influence in the rival states to the north (in France the monarchy did all it could to this end as they saw the nobility as dangerous rivals and a burden on the state), Habsburg policy led to a reversal of this social evolution within Spain itself.
Even after the war was over, much of the previous legacy was deeply entrenched in Spanish culture and made it poorly compatible with the rest of Europe. As the flow of gold from Latin America vanished, Spain had nothing to offer in return. However "the Disaster" of 1898, as it was called, led to Spain's cultural Silver Age at the turn of the twentieth century, liberated it from the burden of empire and once again re-started the difficult process of modernisation that had begun in the eighteenth century.
The 20th century initially brought little peace; colonization of Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea was attempted. A period of dictatorial rule (1923 - 1931) ended with the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic. The Republic offered political autonomy to the Basque Country and Catalonia and gave voting rights to women. However, in July 1936, against a backdrop of increasing political polarization, anti-clericalism and pressure from all sides, coupled with growing and unchecked political violence, the Republic was faced with an attempted military coup d'etat led by right-wing army generals. Although the coup initially failed, the ensuing Spanish Civil War ended in 1939 with the victory of the nationalist forces led by General Francisco Franco and supported by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. The Spanish Civil War has been called the first battle of the Second World War. After the civil war, General Francisco Franco brutally ruled a nation exhausted politically and economically.
After World War II, being one of few surviving fascist regimes in Europe (though some say it was really just a brutal old fashioned reactionary regime), Spain was politically and economically isolated and was kept out of the United Nations until 1955, when it became strategically important for U.S. president Eisenhower to establish a military presence in the Iberian peninsula. This opening to Spain was aided by Franco's opposition to communism. In the 1960s, more than a decade later than other western European countries, Spain began to enjoy economic growth and gradually transformed into a modern industrial economy with a thriving tourism sector. Growth continued well into the 1970s, with Franco's government going to great lengths to shield the Spanish people from the effects of the oil crisis.
Upon the death of the dictator General Franco in November 1975, his personally-designated heir Prince Juan Carlos assumed the position of king and head of state. With the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the arrival of democracy, some regions — Basque Country, Catalonia, Galicia and Andalusia— were given far-reaching autonomy, which was then soon extended to all Spanish regions, resulting in one of the most decentralized territorial organizations in Western Europe. However, the radical nationalism in the Basque country and the terrorist group, ETA, continue to be pressing problems facing Spain.
Adolfo Suárez González, Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo Bustelo, after an attempted coup d'état in 1981, Felipe González Márquez (when Spain joined NATO and European Union), José María Aznar López and José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero have been prime ministers of Spain.
On March 11, 2004, a series of bombs exploded in commuter trains in Madrid, Spain. These resulted in 191 people dead and 1,460 wounded. It also had a significant effect on the upcoming elections in Spain, due in part to the ruling government's insistence that the ETA was the prime suspect in the bombings, even as the evidence of Muslim extremist terrorism rapidly emerged from the police investigation and the press. see the 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings article for more information
Main article: Politics of Spain
Spain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the Cortes Generales or National Assembly. The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers presided over by the President of Government (comparable to a prime minister), proposed by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly following legislative elections.
The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados) with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a Senate or Senado with 259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms.
Spain is, at present, what is called a State of Autonomies, formally unitary but, in fact, functioning as a Federation of Autonomous Communities, each one with different powers (for instance, some have their own educational and health systems, others do not) and laws. There are some differences within this system, since power has been devolved from the centre to the periphery asymmetrically, with some autonomous governments (especially those dominated by nationalist parties) seeking a more federalist—or even confederate—kind of relationship with Spain, now the Central Government is dealing with autonomous governments for the transfer of more autonomy. This novel system of asymmetrical devolution has been described as a coconstitutionalism and has similarities to the devolution process adopted by the United Kingdom since 1997.
The terrorist group, ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom), is attempting to achieve Basque independence through violent means, including bombings and killings of politicians and police. Although the Basque Autonomous government does not condone any kind of violence, their different approaches to the separatist movement are a source of tension between the federal and Basque governments.
On 17 May 2005, all the parties in the Congress of Deputies, except the PP, passed the Central Government's motion of beginning peace talks with the ETA with no political concessions and only if it gives up all its weapons. PSOE, CiU, ERC, PNV, IU-ICV, CC and the mixed group -BNG, CHA, EA y NB- supported it with a total of 192 votes, while the 147 PP parliamentaris objected.
On February 20th 2005, Spain became the first country to allow its people to vote on the European Union constitution that was signed in October 2004. The rules states that if any country rejects the constitution then the constitution will be declared void. The final result was very strongly in affirmation of the constitution, making Spain the first country to approve the constitution via referendum (Hungary, Lithuania and Slovenia approved it before Spain, but they did not hold referenda).
- Andalusia (Andalucía)
- Aragon (Aragón)
- Principality of Asturias (Principáu d'Asturies in Asturian/Principado de Asturias in Spanish)
- Balearic Islands (Illes Balears in Catalan / Islas Baleares in Spanish)
- Basque Country (Euskadi in Basque/País Vasco in Spanish)
- Canary Islands (Islas Canarias)
- Castile-La Mancha (Castilla-La Mancha)
- Castile and Leon (Castilla y León in Spanish)
- Catalonia (Catalunya in Catalan/Cataluña in Spanish/ Catalunha in Aranese)
- Galicia (Galicia or Galiza in Galician)
- La Rioja
- Navarre (Nafarroa in Basque/Navarra in Spanish)
- Land of Valencia (Comunitat Valenciana in Valencian /Comunidad Valenciana in Spanish, as official denominations).
Main article: Provinces of Spain
The Spanish kingdom is also divided into 50 provinces (provincias). Autonomous communities group provinces (for instance, Extremadura is made of two provinces: Cáceres and Badajoz). The autonomous communities of Asturias, the Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Navarre, Murcia, and Madrid are each composed of a single province. Traditionally, provinces are usually subdivided into historic regions or comarcas (main article: Comarcas of Spain).
Places of sovereignty
There are also five enclaves (plazas de soberanía) on and off the African coast: the cities of Ceuta and Melilla are administered as autonomous cities, an intermediate status between cities and communities; the islands of the Islas Chafarinas, Peñón de Alhucemas, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera are under direct Spanish administration.
Main article: Geography of Spain
Mainland Spain is dominated by high plateaus and mountain ranges such as the Pyrenees or the Sierra Nevada. Running from these heights are several major rivers such as the Tajo, the Ebro, the Duero, the Guadiana and the Guadalquivir. Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia, in the east there are alluvial plains with medium rivers like Segura, Júcar and Turia. Spain is bound to the east by Mediterranean Sea (containing the Balearic Islands), to the north by the Bay of Biscay and to its west by the Atlantic Ocean, where the Canary Islands off the African coast are found.
Spain's climate can be divided in four areas:
- The Mediterranean: mostly temperate in the eastern and southern part of the country; rainy seasons are spring and autumn. Mild summers with pleasant temperatures. Hot records: Murcia 47.2 ºC, Malaga 44.2 ºC, Valencia 42.5 ºC, Alicante 41.4 ºC, Palma of Mallorca 40.6 ºC, Barcelona 39.8 ºC. Low records: Gerona -13.0 ºC, Barcelona -10.0 ºC, Valencia -7.2 ºC, Murcia -6.0 ºC, Alicante -4.6 ºC, Malaga -3.8 ºC.
- The interior: Very cold winters (frequent snow in the north) and hot summers. Hot records: Sevilla 47.0 ºC, Cordoba 46.6 ºC, Badajoz 45.0 ºC, Albacete and Zaragoza 42.6 ºC, Madrid 42.2 ºC, Burgos 41.8 ºC, Valladolid 40.2 ºC. Low records: Albacete -24.0 ºC, Burgos -22.0 ºC, Salamanca -20.0 ºC, Teruel -19.0 ºC, Madrid -14.8 ºC, Sevilla -5.5 ºC.
- Northern Atlantic coast: precipitations mostly in winter, with mild summers (slightly cold). Hot records: Bilbao 42.0 ºC, La Coruña 37.6 ºC, Gijón 36.4 ºC. Low records: Bilbao -8.6 ºC, Oviedo -6.0 ºC, Gijon and La Coruña -4.8 ºC.
- The Canary Islands: subtropical weather, with mild temperatures (18 ºC to 24 ºC Celsius) throughout the year. Hot records: Santa Cruz de Tenerife 42.6 ºC. Low records: Santa Cruz de Tenerife 8.1 ºC.
Most populous metropolitan areas
For a more complete list, see List of cities in Spain
Territories claimed by Spain
Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar, a tiny British possession on its southern coast. It changed hands during the War of the Spanish Succession in 1704 and was ceded to Britain in perpetuity in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht.
Spanish territories claimed by other countries
Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla and the uninhabited Vélez, Alhucemas, Chafarinas, and Perejil islands, all on the Northern coast of Africa. Morocco points out that those territories were obtained when Morocco could not do anything to prevent it and has never signed treaties cessioning them.
Portugal does not recognize Spain's sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza. Spain and Portugal disagree on the interpretation of the outputs of the Congress of Vienna (1815), which according to Portugal stated the return of the territory to Portugal. Spain claims it is a de jure sovereignty according to International law.
Main article: Economy of Spain
Spain's mixed capitalist economy supports a GDP that on a per capita basis is 87% that of the four leading West European economies. The centre-right government of former Prime Minister Aznar successfully worked to gain admission to the first group of countries launching the European single currency, the euro, on 1 January 1999. The Aznar administration continued to advocate liberalization, privatization, and deregulation of the economy and introduced some tax reforms to that end. Unemployment fell steadily under the Aznar administration but remains high at 9.8% as of August 2005 - but this (still unacceptable) level must be seen in the light of levels of over 20% at the start of the 1990s. Growth of 2.4% in 2003 was satisfactory given the background of a faltering European economy, and has steadied since at an annualised rate of about 3.3% in mid 2005. The Prime Minister Rodríguez Zapatero, whose party won the election three days after the Madrid train bombings in March 2004, plans to reduce government intervention in business, combat tax fraud, and support innovation, research and development, but also intends to reintroduce labour market regulations that had been scrapped by the Aznar government. Adjusting to the monetary and other economic policies of an integrated Europe - and reducing unemployment - will pose challenges to Spain over the next few years. According to World Bank GDP figuresfrom 2004, Spain has the 8th largest economy in the world.
There is general concern that Spain's model of economic growth (based largely on mass tourism, the construction industry, and manufacturing sectors) is faltering and may prove unsustainable over the long term. The first report of the Observatory on Sustainability (Observatorio de Sostenibilidad) - published in 2005 and funded by Spain's Ministry of the Environment and Alcalá University - reveals that the country's per capita GDP grew by 25% over the last ten years, while greenhouse gas emissions have risen by 45% since 1990. Although Spain's population grew by less than 5% between 1990 and 2000, urban areas expanded by no less than 25% over the same period. Meanwhile, Spain's energy consumption has doubled over the last 20 years and is currently rising by 6% per annum. This is particularly worrying for a country whose dependence on imported oil (meeting roughly 80% of Spain's energy needs) is one of the greatest in the EU. Large-scale unsustainable development is clearly visible along Spain's Mediterranean coast in the form of housing and tourist complexes, which are placing severe strain on local land and water resources.
Main article: Demographics of Spain
The Spanish Constitution, although affirming the sovereignty of the Spanish Nation, recognizes historical nationalities.
The Castilian-derived Spanish (called both español and castellano in the language itself) is the official language throughout Spain, but other regional languages are also spoken. Without mentioning them by name, the Spanish Constitution recognizes the possibility of regional languages being co-official in their respective autonomous communities. The following languages are co-official with Spanish according to the appropriate Autonomy Statutes.
- Catalan (català) in Catalonia (Catalunya), the Balearic Islands (Illes Balears) and Valencia (València).
- Basque (euskara) in Basque Country (Euskadi), and parts of Navarre (Nafarroa). Basque is not known to be related to any other language.
- Galician (galego) in Galicia (Galicia or Galiza).
- Occitan (the Aranese dialect). Spoken in the Vall d'Aran in Catalonia.
Catalan, Galician, Aranese (Occitan) and Spanish (Castilian) are all descended from Latin and have their own dialects, some championed as separate languages by their speakers (the Valencià of València, a dialect of Catalan, is one example).
There are also some other surviving Romance minority languages: Asturian / Leonese, in Asturias and parts of Leon, Zamora and Salamanca, and the Extremaduran in Caceres and Salamanca, both descendants of the historical Astur-Leonese dialect; the Aragonese or fabla in part of Aragon; the fala, spoken in three villages of Extremadura; and some Portuguese dialectal towns in Extremadura and Castile-Leon. However, unlike Catalan, Galician, and Basque, these do not have any official status.
In the touristic areas of the Mediterranean costas and the islands, German and English are spoken by tourists, foreign residents and tourism workers.
Many linguists claim that most of the Spanish language variants spoken in Latin America (Mexican, Argentinian, Colombian, Peruvian, etc. variants) descended from the Spanish spoken in southwestern Spain (Andalusia, Extremadura and Canary Islands).
The Spanish Constitution of 1978, in its second article, recognizes historic entities ("nationalities," a carefully chosen word in order to avoid "nations") and regions, inside the unity of the Spanish nation.
But Spain's identity is sometimes, in fact, an overlap of different regional identities, some of them even conflicting.
Castile is considered by many to be the "core" of Spain. However, this may just be a reflection of the fact that the Castilian national identity was the first one to be quashed by the Spanish Empire in the revolt of the Communards (comuneros).
The opposite is the case of a large part of Catalans, Basques and, in some measure, Galicians, who quite frequently identify primarily with Galicia, Catalonia and the Basque Country first, with Spain only second, or even third, after Europe. For example, according to the last CIS survey, 44% of Basques identify themselves first as Basques (only 8% first as Spaniards); 40% of Catalans do so with their autonomous community (20% identify firstly with Spain), and 32% Galicians with Galicia (9% with Spain). Even more remarkable, almost all comunities have a majority of people identifying as much with Spain as with the Autonomous Community (except Madrid, where Spain is the primary identity, and Catalonia, Basque Country and Balearics, where people tend to identity more with their Autonomous Community). Even Castille-Leon has 57% of people regarding themselves as much Spaniards as they are Castillians.
The situation is even more confusing, since there are regions with ambiguous identities, like Navarre, Valencia, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, etc. There has been a lot of internal migration (rural exodus) from regions like Galicia, Andalusia and Extremadura to Madrid, Catalonia, Basque Country and the islands.
Spain became a unified crown with the union of Castile and Aragon in 1492 and the annexation of Navarre in 1515. Until 1714, Spain was a loose confederation of kingdoms and statelets under one king, until King Philip V (Felipe V) removed the autonomous status of the Aragonese crown. Navarre and the Basque Provinces, however, kept a high degree of autonomy within their legal and financial system (Fueros). Moreover, the creation of a unified state in the 19th and 20th centuries has led to the present situation, which is apparently simple, but sometimes extremely confusing. During the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1936), Catalonia and the Basque country were given limited self-government, which was lost after the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) and restored in 1978 during the transition to democracy.
Since the 16th century, the most important minority group in the country have been the Gitanos. Other historical minorities are Mercheros (or Quinquis) and Vaqueiros de alzada. The latter, meaning "Mountain cow-breeders" dwell in mountain ranges in the Principality of Asturias and have kept historically apart from the valley dwellers.
The number of immigrants or foreign residents has tripled to 3.69 million in less than five years, according the latest figures (2005) of National Statics Institute. They currently make up around 10 per cent of the official total population. The rise of population in Spain in recent years was largely due to them. Nearly half of all immigrants have neither residence nor work permits.
According to Imdiversity.com (2003 statistics), the largest foreign minorities are Romanian(500,000 - 1,000,000 unnoficially) Ecuadorians (375 000), Moroccans (365 846), Argentines (300,000) Colombians (244,000) and British (121 107), followed by other nationalities, as Chinese, Filipinos, Dominicans, Peruvians, Guineans, etc. A sizeable number of Spanish citizens also descends from these communities.
Roman Catholicism is, by far, the most popular religion in the country. According to several sources (CIA World Fact Book 2005, Spanish official polls and others), from 80% to 94% self-identify as Catholics, whereas around 6% to 13% identify with either other religions or none at all. It is important to note, however, that many Spaniards identify themselves as Catholics just because they were baptised, even though they are not very religious at all (in fact some polls show that 14% do not believe in any God). According to recent surveys (New York Times, April 19, 2005) only around 18 per cent of Spaniards regularly attend mass. Of those under 30, only about 14 per cent attend.
Further evidence of the secular nature of modern Spain can be seen in the widespread support for the legalisation of marriage for homosexuals - over 70% of Spaniards support gay marriage according to a 2004 study by the Centre of Sociological Investigations. Indeed, in June 2005 a bill was passed by 187 votes to 147 to allow gay marriage, making Spain the third country in the European Union to allow same-sex couples the same rights as heterosexual ones. Proposed changes to the divorce laws to make the process quicker and to eliminate the need for a guilty party are also popular. In many ways modern Spain can be described as a secular country with a strong Catholic tradition.
According to membership , the second religion of Spain is the organization of the Jehovah's Witnesses with 103,784 active publishers; there are also many Protestant denominations, all of them with less than 50 000 members, and about 20,000 Mormons. Evangelism has been better received among Gypsies than among the general population; pastors have integrated flamenco music in their liturgy. Taken together, all self-described "Evangelicals" slightly surpass Jehovah's Witnesses in number.
The recent waves of immigration have led to an increasing number of Muslims, who have about 800,000 members. Muslims were forcibly converted in 1492 and then expelled in the 16th century.
Since the expulsion of the Sephardim in 1492, Judaism was practically nonexistent until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country. Currently there are around 14,000 Jews in Spain, all arrivals in the past century. There are also many Spaniards (in Spain and abroad) who claim Jewish ancestry to the Conversos, and still practice certain customs. Spain is believed to have been about 8 per cent Jewish on the eve of the Spanish Inquisition. See History of the Jews in Spain.
Over the past thirty years, Spain has become a more secularised society. The number of believers has decreased significantly and for those who believe the degree of accordance and practice to their church is quite diverse.
According to the latest official poll (CIS, 2002), 80% of Spaniards self-identify as Catholic, 12% as non-believer, and 1% as other (the remaining 7% declined to state). Of the 1.4% identifying as other, 29% identified as Evangelical Christian, 26% as Jehovah's Witnesses and 3,5% as Muslim (the rest either mentioned smaller religions or declined to state). According to the same poll, 73% believe in God, 14% don't and 12% are unsure (1% declined to state). Additionally, according to this poll, only 41% believe in Heaven. 24% of the Spaniards think that the Bible is just a fable. Only 25% of Catholics go to church at least once a week.
Main article: Culture of Spain
- Bonfires of Saint John
- Camino de Santiago
- Cuisine of Spain
- List of Spaniards
- Music of Spain
- Spanish football
- Spanish literature
- Reporters without borders world-wide press freedom index 2002: Rank 39 out of 139 countries (2-way tie)
- The Economist Intelligence Unit's worldwide quality-of-life index 2005: Rank 10 out of 111 countries (above countries like the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and France)
John Hickman and Chris Little, "Seat/Vote Proportionality in Romanian and Spanish Parliamentary Elections", Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans Volume 2, Number 2, November 2000.
Harold Raley, "The Spirit of Spain", Houston:Halcyon Press 2001. (ISBN 0970605498)
Main article: List of Spain-related topics
- Civil unions in Spain
- Communications in Spain
- Foreign relations of Spain
- List of cities in Spain
- List of municipalities in Spain
- List of Spanish birds
- List of Spanish national parks
- Military of Spain
- Places of sovereignty near Morocco
- Same-sex marriage in Spain
- Spanish nobility
- Tourism in Spain
- Transportation in Spain
- administracion.es e-government Portal
- Casa Real – Official site of the Spanish Royal Family
- Spain: CIA World Factbook entry (updated January 27, 2005; info as available on January 1, 2004)
- Congreso de los Diputados — Official site of the Congress of Deputies
- El Senado – Official site of the Senate
- ExplorerSpain — Spain Tourist Information and regional news.
- iberianature a guide to the environment, geography, climate, wildlife, natural history and landscape of Spain
- INEBase — National Institute of Statistics (Spanish)
- Information on Spain
- La Moncloa.es — Official governmental site
- Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Photographs of Spain: Barcelona, Girona and Catalonia
- Proel.org — Languages of Spain
- Softguide Spain (English/Spanish)
- Spain Guide A guide to Spain - Including tourist information, maps of Spain and more
- Spain Guide: Provides useful information on Spain and Spanish culture
- spain.info Spain Tourist Information
- Spain: The Economist Country Briefings entry (current)
- Spain: US Library of Congress Country Studies entry (1988)
- Spanish maps
- Webcams throughout Spain
- Parks in Spain National parks, nature parks, reserves and other protected areas
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