Plasma physics

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This article is about plasma in the sense of an ionized gas. For other uses of the term, such as blood plasma, see plasma (disambiguation).
File:Plasma-lamp 2.jpg
A Plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation

In physics and chemistry, a plasma is an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter. "Ionized" in this case means that at least one electron has been removed from a significant fraction of the molecules. The free electric charges make the plasma electrically conductive so that it couples strongly to electromagnetic fields. This fourth state of matter was first identified by Sir William Crookes in 1879 and dubbed "plasma" by Irving Langmuir in 1928, because it reminded him of a blood plasma [Ref].

Common plasmas

File:Solar-flares-(double).jpg
A solar coronal mass ejection blasts plasma throughout the Solar System.[Ref & Credit]

Plasmas are the most common phase of matter. The entire visible universe outside the Solar System is plasma, since all we can see are stars. Since the space between the stars is filled with a plasma, although a very sparse one (see interstellar and intergalactic medium), essentially the entire volume of the universe is plasma. In the Solar System, the planet Jupiter accounts for most of the non-plasma, only about 0.1% of the mass and 10-15 of the volume within the orbit of Pluto.

Commonly encountered forms of plasma include:

Characteristics

The term plasma is generally reserved for a system of charged particles large enough to behave collectively. Even a partially ionized gas in which as little as 1% of the particles are ionized can have the characteristics of a plasma (i.e. respond to magnetic fields and be highly electrically conductive).

In technical terms, the typical characteristics of a plasma are:

  1. Debye screening lengths that are short compared to the physical size of the plasma.
  2. Large number of particles within a sphere with a radius of the Debye length.
  3. Mean time between collisions usually is long when compared to the period of plasma oscillations.

Plasma scaling

Plasmas and their characteristics exist over a wide range of scales (ie. they are scaleable over many orders of magnitude). The following chart deals only with conventional atomic plasmas and not other exotic phenomena, such as, quark gluon plasmas:

Typical plasma scaling ranges: orders of magnitude (OOM)
CharacteristicTerrestrial plasmasCosmic plasmas
Size
in metres (m)
10-6 m (lab plasmas) to:
102 m (lightning) (~8 OOM)
10-6 m (spacecraft sheath) to
1025 m (intergalactic nebula) (~31 OOM)
Lifetime
in seconds (s)
10-12 s (laser-produced plasma) to:
107 s (fluorescent lights) (~19 OOM)
101 s (solar flares) to:
1017 s (intergalactic plasma) (~17 OOM)
Density
in particles per
cubic metre
107 to:
1021 (inertial confinement plasma)
1030 (stellar core) to:
100 (i.e., 1) (intergalactic medium)
Temperature
in kelvins (K)
~0 K (Crystalline non-neutral plasma[2]) to:
108 K (magnetic fusion plasma)
102 K (aurora) to:
107 K (Solar core)
Magnetic fields
in teslas (T)
10-4 T (Lab plasma) to:
103 T (pulsed-power plasma)
10-12 T (intergalactic medium) to:
107 T (Solar core)

Temperatures

File:Photos-photos 1087592507 Energy Arc.jpg
The central electrode of a plasma lamp, showing a glowing blue plasma streaming upwards. The colors are a result of the radiative recombination of electrons and ions and the relaxation of electrons in excited states back to lower energy states. These processes emit light in a spectrum characteristic of the gas being excited.

The defining characteristic of a plasma is ionization. Although ionization can be caused by UV radiation, energetic particles, or strong electric fields, (processes that tend to result in a non-Maxwellian electron distribution function), it is more commonly caused by heating the electrons in such a way that they are close to thermal equilibrium so the electron temperature is relatively well-defined. Because the large mass of the ions relative to the electrons hinders energy transfer, it is possible for the ion temperature to be very different from (usually lower than) the electron temperature.

The degree of ionization is determined by the electron temperature relative to the ionization energy (and more weakly by the density) in accordance with the Saha equation. If only a small fraction of the gas molecules are ionized (for example 1%), then the plasma is said to be a cold plasma, even though the electron temperature is typically several thousand degrees. The ion temperature in a cold plasma is often near the ambient temperature. Because the plasmas utilized in plasma technology are typically cold, they are sometimes called technological plasmas. They are often created by using a very high electric field to accelerate electrons, which then ionize the atoms. The electric field is either capacitively or inductively coupled into the gas by means of a plasma source, e.g. microwaves. Common applications of cold plasmas include plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, plasma ion doping, and reactive ion etching.

A hot plasma, on the other hand, is nearly fully ionized. This is what would commonly be known as the "fourth-state of matter". The Sun is an example of a hot plasma. The electrons and ions are more likely to have equal temperatures in a hot plasma, but there can still be significant differences.

Densities

Next to the temperature, which is of fundamental importance for the very existence of a plasma, the most important property is the density. The word "plasma density" by itself usually refers to the electron density, that is, the number of free electrons per unit volume. The ion density is related to this by the average charge state Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \langle Z\rangle} of the ions through Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle n_e=\langle Z\rangle n_i} . (See quasineutrality below.) The third important quantity is the density of neutrals Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle n_0} . In a hot plasma this is small, but may still determine important physics. The degree of ionization is Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle n_i/(n_0+n_i)} .

Potentials

File:Lightning-with-streamers.jpg
Lightning is an example of plasma present at Earth's surface. Typically, lightning discharges 30 thousand amps, at up to 100 million volts, and emits light, radio waves, x-rays and even gamma rays [1]. Plasma temperatures in lightning can approach 28,000 kelvins and electron densities may exceed 1024/m3.

Since plasmas are very good conductors, electric potentials play an important role. The potential as it exists on average in the space between charged particles, independent of the question of how it can be measured, is called the plasma potential or the space potential. If an electrode is inserted into a plasma, its potential will generally lie considerably below the plasma potential due to the development of a Debye sheath. Due to the good electrical conductivity, the electric fields in plasmas tend to be very small, although where double layers are formed, the potential drop can be large enough to accelerate ions to relativistic velocities and produce synchrotron radiation such as x-rays and gamma rays. This results in the important concept of quasineutrality, which says that, on the one hand, it is a very good approximation to assume that the density of negative charges is equal to the density of positive charges (Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle n_e=\langle Z\rangle n_i} ), but that, on the other hand, electric fields can be assumed to exist as needed for the physics at hand.

The magnitude of the potentials and electric fields must be determined by means other than simply finding the net charge density. A common example is to assume that the electrons satisfy the Boltzmann relation, Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle n_e \propto e^{e\Phi/k_BT_e}} . Differentiating this relation provides a means to calculate the electric field from the density: Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \vec{E} = (k_BT_e/e)(\nabla n_e/n_e)} .

It is, of course, possible to produce a plasma that is not quasineutral. An electron beam, for example, has only negative charges. The density of a non-neutral plasma must generally be very low, or it must be very small, otherwise it will be dissipated by the repulsive electrostatic force.

In astrophysical plasmas, Debye screening prevents electric fields from directly affecting the plasma over large distances (ie. greater than the Debye length). But the existence of charged particles causes the plasma to generate and be affected by magnetic fields. This can and does cause extremely complex behavior, such as the generation of plasma double layers, an object that separates charge over a few tens of Debye lengths. The dynamics of plasmas interacting with external and self-generated magnetic fields are studied in the academic discipline of magnetohydrodynamics.

In contrast to the gas phase

Plasma is often called the fourth state of matter. It is distinct from the three lower-energy phases of matter; solid, liquid, and gas, although it is closely related to the gas phase in that it also has no definite form or volume. There is still some disagreement as to whether a plasma is a distinct state of matter or simply a type of gas. Most physicists consider a plasma to be more than a gas because of a number of distinct properties including the following:

Property Gas Plasma
Electrical Conductivity Very low
 
Very high
  1. For many purposes the electric field in a plasma may be treated as zero, although when current flows the voltage drop, though small, is finite, and density gradients are usually associated with an electric field according to the Boltzmann relation.
  2. The possibility of currents couples the plasma strongly to magnetic fields, which are responsible for a large variety of structures such as filaments, sheets, and jets.
  3. Collective phenomena are common because the electric and magnetic forces are both long-range and potentially many orders of magnitude stronger than gravitational forces.
Independently acting species One Two or three
Electrons, ions, and neutrals can be distinguished by the sign of their charge so that they behave independently in many circumstances, having different velocities or even different temperatures, leading to new types of waves and instabilities, among other things
Velocity distribution Maxwellian May be non-Maxwellian
Whereas collisional interactions always lead to a Maxwellian velocity distribution, electric fields influence the particle velocities differently. The velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision cross section can amplify these differences, resulting in phenomena like two-temperature distributions and run-away electrons.
Interactions Binary
Two-particle collisions are the rule, three-body collisions extremely rare.
Collective
Each particle interacts simultaneously with many others. These collective interactions are about ten times more important than binary collisions.

Complex plasma phenomena

File:Tycho-supernova.jpg
Tycho's Supernova remnant, a huge ball of expanding plasma. Langmuir coined the name plasma because of its similarity to blood plasma, and Hannes Alfvén noted its cellular nature. Note also the filamentary blue outer shell of X-ray emitting high-speed electrons

Plasma may exhibit complex behaviour. And just as plasma properties scale over many orders of magnitude (see table above), so do these complex features. Many of these features were first studied in the laboratory, and in more recent years, have been applied to, and recognised throughout the universe. Some of these features include:

  • Filamentation, the striations or "stringy things" seen in a "plasma ball", the aurora, lightning, and nebulae. They are caused by larger current densities, and are also called magnetic ropes or plasma cables.
  • Double layers, localised charge separation regions that have a large potential difference across the layer, and a vanishing electric field on either side. Double layers are found between adjacent plasmas regions with different physical characteristics, and can accelerate ions and produce synchrotron radiation (such as x-rays and gamma rays).
  • Birkeland currents, a magnetic-field-aligned electric current, first observed in the Earth's aurora, and also found in plasma filaments.
  • Circuits. Birkeland currents imply electric circuits, that follow Kirchhoff's circuit laws. Circuits have a resistance and inductance, and the behaviour of the plasma depends on the entire circuit. Such circuits also store inductive energy, and should the circuit be disrupted, for example, by a plasma instability, the inductive energy will be released in the plasma.
  • Cellular structure. Plasma double layers may separate regions with different properties such as magnetization, density, and temperature, resulting in cell-like regions. Examples include the magnetosphere, heliosphere, and heliospheric current sheet.
  • Critical ionization velocity in which the relative velocity between an ionized plasma and a neutral gas, may cause further ionization of the gas, resulting in a greater influence of electomagnetic forces.

Mathematical descriptions

Plasmas may be usefully described with various levels of detail. However the plasma itself is described, if electric or magnetic fields are present, then Maxwell's equations will be needed to describe them. The coupling of the description of a conductive fluid to electromagnetic fields is known generally as magnetohydrodynamics, or simply MHD.

Fluid

The simplest possibility is to treat the plasma as a single fluid governed by the Navier Stokes Equations. A more general description is the two-fluid picture, where the ions and electrons are considered to be distinct.

Kinetic

For some cases the fluid description is not sufficient. Kinetic models include information on distortions of the velocity distribution functions with respect to a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. This may be important when currents flow, when waves are involved, or when gradients are very steep.

Particle-in-cell

Particle-in-cell (PIC) models include kinetic information by following the trajectories of a large number of individual particles. Charge and current densities are determined by summing the particles in cells which are small compared to the problem at hand but still contain many particles. The electric and magnetic fields are found from the charge and current densities with appropriate boundary conditions. PIC codes for plasma applications were developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950's. Although often more calculationally intensive than alternative models, they are relatively easy to understand and program and can be very general.

Fundamental plasma parameters

File:Fusor running.jpg
A 'sun in a test tube'. The Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor during operation in so called "star mode" characterized by "rays" of glowing plasma which appear to emanate from the gaps in the inner grid.

All quantities are in Gaussian cgs units except temperature expressed in eV and ion mass expressed in units of the proton mass Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mu = m_i/m_p} ; Z is charge state; k is Boltzmann's constant; K is wavelength; γ is the adiabatic index; ln Λ is the Coulomb logarithm.

Frequencies

  • electron gyrofrequency, the angular frequency of the circular motion of an electron in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field:
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \omega_{ce} = eB/m_ec = 1.76 \times 10^7 B \mbox{rad/s}}
  • ion gyrofrequency, the angular frequency of the circular motion of an ion in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field:
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \omega_{ci} = eB/m_ic = 9.58 \times 10^3 Z \mu^{-1} B \mbox{rad/s}}
  • electron plasma frequency, the frequency with which electrons oscillate when their charge density is not equal to the ion charge density (plasma oscillation):
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \omega_{pe} = (4\pi n_ee^2/m_e)^{1/2} = 5.64 \times 10^4 n_e^{1/2} \mbox{rad/s}}
  • ion plasma frequency:
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \omega_{pe} = (4\pi n_iZ^2e^2/m_i)^{1/2} = 1.32 \times 10^3 Z \mu^{-1/2} n_i^{1/2} \mbox{rad/s}}
  • electron trapping rate
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \nu_{Te} = (eKE/m_e)^{1/2} = 7.26 \times 10^8 K^{1/2} E^{1/2} \mbox{s}^{-1}}
  • ion trapping rate
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \nu_{Ti} = (ZeKE/m_i)^{1/2} = 1.69 \times 10^7 Z^{1/2} K^{1/2} E^{1/2} \mu^{-1/2} \mbox{s}^{-1}}
  • electron collision rate
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \nu_e = 2.91 \times 10^{-6} n_e\,\ln\Lambda\,T_e^{-3/2} \mbox{s}^{-1}}
  • ion collision rate
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \nu_i = 4.80 \times 10^{-8} Z^4 \mu^{-1/2} n_i\,\ln\Lambda\,T_i^{-3/2} \mbox{s}^{-1}}

Lengths

File:Magnetic-rope.gif
The complex self-constricting magnetic field lines and current paths in a Birkeland current that may develop in a plasma [Ref]
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Lambda_e= \sqrt{\frac{h^2}{2\pi m_ekT_e}}= 6.919\times 10^{-8}\,T_e^{-1/2}\,\mbox{cm}}
  • classical distance of closest approach, the closest that two particles with the elementary charge come to each other if they approach head-on and each have a velocity typical of the temperature, ignoring quantum-mechanical effects:
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle e^2/kT=1.44\times10^{-7}\,T^{-1}\,\mbox{cm}}
  • electron gyroradius, the radius of the circular motion of an electron in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field:
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle r_e = v_{Te}/\omega_{ce} = 2.38\,T_e^{1/2}B^{-1}\,\mbox{cm}}
  • ion gyroradius, the radius of the circular motion of an ion in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field:
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle r_i = v_{Ti}/\omega_{ci} = 1.02\times10^2\,\mu^{1/2}Z^{-1}T_i^{1/2}B^{-1}\,\mbox{cm}}
  • plasma skin depth, the depth in a plasma to which electromagnetic radiation can penetrate:
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle c/\omega_{pe} = 5.31\times10^5\,n_e^{-1/2}\,\mbox{cm}}
  • Debye length, the scale over which electric fields are screened out by a redistribution of the electrons:
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \lambda_D = (kT/4\pi ne^2)^{1/2} = 7.43\times10^2\,T^{1/2}n^{-1/2}\,\mbox{cm}}

Velocities

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle v_{Te} = (kT_e/m_e)^{1/2} = 4.19\times10^7\,T_e^{1/2}\,\mbox{cm/s}}
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle v_{Ti} = (kT_i/m_i)^{1/2} = 9.79\times10^5\,\mu^{-1/2}T_i^{1/2}\,\mbox{cm/s}}
  • ion sound velocity, the speed of the longitudinal waves resulting from the mass of the ions and the pressure of the electrons:
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle c_s = (\gamma ZkT_e/m_i)^{1/2} = 9.79\times10^5\,(\gamma ZT_e/\mu)^{1/2}\,\mbox{cm/s}}
  • Alfven velocity, the speed of the waves resulting from the mass of the ions and the restoring force of the magnetic field:
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle v_A = B/(4\pi n_im_i)^{1/2} = 2.18\times10^{11}\,\mu^{-1/2}n_i^{-1/2}B\,\mbox{cm/s}}

Dimensionless

  • square root of electron/proton mass ratio
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle (m_e/m_p)^{1/2} = 2.33\times10^{-2} = 1/42.9}
  • number of particles in a Debye sphere
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle (4\pi/3)n\lambda_D^3 = 1.72\times10^9\,T^{3/2}n^{-1/2}}
  • Alven velocity/speed of light
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle v_A/c = 7.28\,\mu^{-1/2}n_i^{-1/2}B}
  • electron plasma/gyrofrequency ratio
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \omega_{pe}/\omega_{ce} = 3.21\times10^{-3}\,n_e^{1/2}B^{-1}}
  • ion plasma/gyrofrequency ratio
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \omega_{pi}/\omega_{ci} = 0.137\,\mu^{1/2}n_i^{1/2}B^{-1}}
  • thermal/magnetic energy ratio
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \beta = 8\pi nkT/B^2 = 4.03\times10^{-11}\,nTB^{-2}}
  • magnetic/ion rest energy ratio
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle B^2/8\pi n_im_ic^2 = 26.5\,\mu^{-1}n_i^{-1}B^2}

Miscellaneous

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle D_B = (ckT/16eB) = 6.25\times10^6\,TB^{-1}\,\mbox{cm}^2/\mbox{s}}
  • transverse Spitzer resistivity
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \eta_\perp = 1.15\times10^{-14}\,Z\,\ln\Lambda\,T^{-3/2}\,\mbox{s} = 1.03\times10^{-2}\,Z\,\ln\Lambda\,T^{-3/2}\,\Omega\,\mbox{cm}}

Fields of active research

File:HallThruster 2.jpg
Hall effect thruster. The electric field in a plasma double layer is so effective at accelerating ions, that electric fields are used in ion drives

See also

File:Candleburning.jpg
A candle flame. Fire is one of the more common natural earthly plasmas.

External links

Template:Phase of matter


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