Photonics

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Template:Expert Photonics is the science and technology of generating and controlling photons, particularly in the visible and near infra-red light spectrum. The field of photonics has a strong interest in the use of photons to carry information. The science and applications of photonics are usually based on laser light. Polaritonics differs with photonics in that the fundamental information carrier is a phonon-polariton, which is an admixture of photons and phonons, and operates in the range of frequencies from 300 terahertz to approximately 10 terahertz. Photonics typically operates at frequencies on the order of hundreds of terahertz.

File:PrismAndLight.jpg
Bundle of photons dispersed by a prism


Overview of photonics research

The science of photonics includes the emission, transmission, amplification, detection, modulation, and switching of light. List of photonic devices includes lasers, light emitting diodes (LEDs), fiber optics, and photonic crystals. Applications of photonics range from light detection to communications, information processing and many other machining applications.

Photonics as a science is closely related to quantum optics with a somewhat unclear boundary: fundamental research tends to be called quantum optics, and photonics is rather application related research (especially such trying to establish an electronics with photons instead of electrons -- hence the name).

History of photonics

The modern photonics began in 1960, with the invention of the laser, followed in 1970s by the development of optical fibers as a medium for transmitting information using light beams.

One of the most important discoveries in Photonics to date is the photonic crystal followed by development of the photonic-crystal fiber. This fibre optic cable is designed using photonic technology and is virtually lossless. The first example of a working PCF was reported by Jonathan Knight, Tim Birks and Philip Russell in 1996, members of the PPMG at the University of Bath, UK.

University programs in photonics

Many universities now have programs and facilities focused on photonics research. The following all have programs in photonics:

Applications of Photonics

Sources

External links

See also: Microphotonics

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