Template:Expert Photonics is the science and technology of generating and controlling photons, particularly in the visible and near infra-red light spectrum. The field of photonics has a strong interest in the use of photons to carry information. The science and applications of photonics are usually based on laser light. Polaritonics differs with photonics in that the fundamental information carrier is a phonon-polariton, which is an admixture of photons and phonons, and operates in the range of frequencies from 300 terahertz to approximately 10 terahertz. Photonics typically operates at frequencies on the order of hundreds of terahertz.
Overview of photonics research
The science of photonics includes the emission, transmission, amplification, detection, modulation, and switching of light. List of photonic devices includes lasers, light emitting diodes (LEDs), fiber optics, and photonic crystals. Applications of photonics range from light detection to communications, information processing and many other machining applications.
Photonics as a science is closely related to quantum optics with a somewhat unclear boundary: fundamental research tends to be called quantum optics, and photonics is rather application related research (especially such trying to establish an electronics with photons instead of electrons -- hence the name).
History of photonics
One of the most important discoveries in Photonics to date is the photonic crystal followed by development of the photonic-crystal fiber. This fibre optic cable is designed using photonic technology and is virtually lossless. The first example of a working PCF was reported by Jonathan Knight, Tim Birks and Philip Russell in 1996, members of the PPMG at the University of Bath, UK.
University programs in photonics
Many universities now have programs and facilities focused on photonics research. The following all have programs in photonics:
- Algonquin College in Ottawa, Ontario , Canada offers a degree program "Bachelor of Applied Technology - Photonics"
- Chitose Institute of Science and Technology in Chitose, Hokkaido, Japan
- Wilfrid Laurier University in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
- McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
- An Eng.D. program between the University of Strathclyde, Heriot-Watt University and University of St Andrews, Scotland in Photonics
- University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland
- A joint program between the Universities of St Andrews and Dundee, Scotland (in Microelectronics and Photonics)
- Australian National University  in Canberra, Australia
- Ghent University
- Towson University
- Boston University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 
- Niagara College Niagara College of Applied Arts and Technology offers two Photonics Programs.
- University of California, San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 
- McGill University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 
Applications of Photonics
- Consumer Equipment: Barcode scanner, printer, CD/DVD/Blu-ray devices, remote control devices
- Telecommunications: Optical fiber communications
- Medicine: correction of poor eyesight, removal of port wine stains, laser surgery, surgical endoscopy, tattoo removal
- Industry: laser welding, laser cutting, laser etching,
- Construction: laser levelling, laser rangefinding, smart structures
- Military: IR sensors, Command and Control, Search and Rescue, Mine Laying and Detection
- Entertainment: Lasershow, beam effects, holographic art
- Information processing
- Photonic Computing
- Photonic Crystal Propulsion
- Lightwave Travel
- Photonic Band Gap website
- University of Bath PPMG Site
- The Institute of Photonics at the University of Strathclyde
- The Photonics Center at Boston University
- Towson University REU/RET Program
- SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering
See also: Microphotonics