Montreal

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This article is about . For , see Montreal (disambiguation).

Template:Montreal infobox Montreal or Montréal1 (pronounced File:Ltspkr.png/ˌmʌntɹiˈɒːl/ in Canadian English, File:Ltspkr.png/mɔ̃ʀeal/ in standard French, and /mɒ̃ɾeal/ in Quebecois French) is the second largest city in Canada and the largest city in the province of Quebec. According to the last Canadian census, the city itself – constituting an administrative region in the province – has 1,812,723 inhabitants, while 3,650,000 people live in the Greater Montreal Area (Statistics Canada 2004). Montreal is the world's second largest french speaking city, after Paris. [1][2]


Well-known for its multicultural population, Montreal is often referred to as a bilingual city. As in most parts of Quebec, French is the most common spoken language and only the city of Paris can claim a higher francophone population. Nevertheless, Montreal has a substantial anglophone population and many of the residents are bilingual.

A primary economic centre in Quebec, Montreal is also one of Canada's most important cultural centres. Montreal is a global city, hosting a multitude of international festivals and events including the XXI Summer Olympiad, Juste pour Rire (Just for Laughs), the Montreal Jazz Festival, the Formula One Canadian Grand Prix, and many others. During the period of prohibition in the United States, Montreal, along with Havana, Cuba, became well-known as one of North America's "Sin Cities" with unparalleled nightlife.

Montreal has the highest concentration of post-secondary students of all major cities in North America. The city is a centre of health and aerospace science. In 2005, it won the distinction of being chosen UNESCO's “World Book Capital City 2005–2006” due to its vibrant literary scene.

Montreal is situated in the south western corner of Quebec approximately 270 kilometres (168 miles) southwest of Quebec City, the provincial capital, and 190 kilometres (118 miles) east of Ottawa, the federal capital. The city is located on the Island of Montreal at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers. The port of Montreal lies at one end of the St. Lawrence Seaway, which is the river gateway that stretches from the Great Lakes up into the Atlantic Ocean. Template:Portal

History

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Jacques Cartier
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Montreal courthouse in 1880.
Main article: History of Montreal

Algonquin, Huron, and Iroquois have inhabited the Montreal area for some eight thousand years. The first European to reach the area was Jacques Cartier, when, on October 2, 1535, he entered the village of Hochelega, on the Island of Montreal.

Seventy years later, Samuel de Champlain decided to establish a fur trading post at Port Royal on the Island of Montreal, but the local Iroquois successfully defended their land. The first permanent European settlement was created on the Island of Montreal in 1639 by a French tax collector named Jérôme Le Royer. Missionaries Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, Jeanne Mance and a few French colonists set up a mission named Ville Marie on May 17, 1642.

Ville Marie became a centre for the fur trade and the Catholic religion, as well as a base for further exploration into New France. The Iroquois continued their attacks on the settlement until a peace treaty was signed in 1701. The town remained French until 1760, when Pierre de Cavagnal, Marquis de Vaudreuil surrendered it to the British army under Jeffrey Amherst. Fire destroyed one quarter of the town on May 18, 1765.

The Treaty of Paris in 1763 ended the French and Indian War and ceded New France to the Kingdom of Great Britain. American Revolutionists briefly held the city in 1775 but soon left. By this time, the city had gained its present name of Montreal, and it started to grow from British immigration. The golden era of fur trading began in the city with the advent of the locally owned North West Company, the main rival to the primarily British Hudson's Bay Company.

Montreal was incorporated as a city in 1832. The city's growth was spurred by the opening of the Lachine Canal, which permitted ships to pass by the unnavigable Lachine Rapids south of the island. Montreal was the capital of the United Province of Canada from 1844 to 1849, bringing more English-speakers to the city, making it roughly bilingual. The now large Anglophone community built one of Canada's first universities, McGill, and the wealthy began building large mansions at the foot of Mont Royal.

In 1852, Montreal had 58,000 inhabitants and by 1860, it was the largest city in British North America and the undisputed economic and cultural centre of Canada. The Canadian Pacific Railway made its headquarters there in 1880, and the Canadian National Railway in 1919. Saint Jacques Street in what is now Old Montreal, then better known as Saint James Street, became the centre of the Canadian financial industry in the late 19th century; the name "Saint James Street" was used as a metonym for Canadian high finance much as "Wall Street" is used in the United States, or "Bay Street" is used today. With the annexation of neighbouring towns between 1883 and 1918, Montreal became a mostly Francophone city again. The tradition to alternate between a francophone and an Anglophone mayor thus began and lasted until 1914.

After World War I, the Prohibition movement in the United States turned Montreal into a haven for Americans looking for alcohol. Despite the increase in tourism, unemployment remained high in the city, and was exacerbated by the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression. However, Canada began to recover from the Great Depression in the mid-1930s, and skyscrapers, such as the Sun Life Building, began appearing.

During World War II, Mayor Camillien Houde protested against conscription and urged Montrealers to ignore the federal government's registry of all men and women. Ottawa was furious over Houde's insubordination and put him in a prison camp until 1944, when the government was forced to institute conscription (see Conscription Crisis of 1944).

After Montreal's population surpassed one million in the early 1950s, Mayor Jean Drapeau laid down plans for the future development of the city. These plans included a new metro system and an underground city, the expansion of Montreal's harbour, and the opening of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. New buildings were built on top of old ones in this time period, including Montreal's two tallest skyscrapers up to then: the 43-storey Place Ville-Marie and the 47-storey Tour de la Bourse. Two new museums were also built, and finally in 1966, the metro opened, along with several new expressways.

The city's international status was cemented by Expo '67 and the Summer Olympics in 1976. A major league baseball team, called the Montreal Expos, was named after the Expo and started playing in Montreal in 1969, but the team moved to Washington, DC in 2005.

Montreal celebrated its 350th anniversary in 1992, prompting the construction of two of Montreal's tallest skyscrapers: 1000 de La Gauchetière and 1250 René-Lévesque. Currently, Montreal's favourable economic conditions allow further improvements in infrastructure, with the expansion of the metro system and the development of a ring road around the island. Neighbourhood gentrification is also occurring. Montreal now constitutes its own region of Quebec.

City government

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Montreal City Hall

The head of the city government in Montreal is the mayor, who is first among equals in the City Council. The current mayor is Gérald Tremblay, who is a member of the Montreal Island Citizens Union (l’Union des citoyens et des citoyennes de l’île de Montréal). The city council is a democratically elected institution and is the primary decision-making authority in the city. It consists of 73 members from all boroughs of the city.

The council has jurisdiction over many matters, including public security, agreements with other governments, subsidy programs, the environment, urban planning, and a three-year capital expenditure program. The city council is also required to supervise, standardise or approve certain decisions made by the borough councils.

Reporting directly to the city council, the executive committee exercises the decision-making powers appropriate to it and is responsible for preparing various documents including budgets and by-laws, submitted by the city council for approval.

The decision-making powers of the executive committee cover, in particular, the awarding of contracts or grants, the management of human and financial resources, supplies and buildings. It may also be assigned further powers by the city council.

Standing committees are the council's instruments for public consultations. They are responsible for the public study of pending matters and for making the appropriate recommendations to the council. They also review the annual budget forecasts for departments under their jurisdiction. A public notice of meeting is published in both French and English daily newspapers at least seven days before each meeting. All meetings include a public question period.

The current standing committees, of which there are seven, have terms lasting two years. In addition, the city council may decide to create special committees at any time. Each standing committee is made up of seven to nine members, including a chairman and a vice-chairman. The members are all elected municipal officers, with the exception of a representative of the government of Quebec on the public security committee.

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The Metropolitan Community of Montreal and its five constituent parts.

The city of Montreal is only one component of the larger Metropolitan Community of Montreal (Communauté Métropolitaine de Montréal, or CMM) in charge of planning, coordinating, and financing economic development, public transportation, garbage collection, etc., across the metropolitan area of Montreal. The president of the CMM is the mayor of Montreal. The CMM covers 3,839 km² (1,482 sq. miles), with 3,431,551 inhabitants living inside its borders in 2002; it is thus larger in area and population than the city of Toronto (even after its 1998 merger). However, the city of Toronto is larger than the city of Montreal proper, and the Greater Toronto Area (a statistical area, and not an administrative entity like the CMM) is larger than the CMM, with 7,000km² (2,702 sq. miles) of area and over 5.2 million people.

Montreal was merged (see Montreal merger and demerger) with the 27 surrounding municipalities on the Island of Montreal on 1 January 2002. The merger created a unified city of Montreal which covered the entire Island of Montreal. This move proved to be unpopular, and several former municipalities totalling 13% of the population of the Island of Montreal voted to leave the newly unified city in separate referendums which took place on 20 June 2004. The demerger will take place on 1 January 2006, after which there will be 16 municipalities on the Island of Montreal (the city of Montreal proper plus 15 much smaller municipalities).

Climate

Thanks to competing climactic influences, the climate in Montreal varies greatly, both by season and from day to day, and is considered a character of the city by Montrealers.

Precipitation is abundant with an average snowfall of 2.4 metres per year in the winter and regular rainfall throughout the year. Each year the city government spends more than $50 million on snow removal. Frequent thunderstorms make summer the wettest season statistically, but it is also the sunniest.

However, as a possible consequence of global warmth, changes in weather have been noticed in the past years: Winters tend to get less cold, with less snow and higher temperatures, while summers are getting hotter and longer (one example among others, the 25-30° heat wave that occurred in late September 2005).

The coldest month is January with a daily average of −10.4°C (13°F). Due to wind chill, the perceived temperature can be much lower than the actual temperature, and wind chill indices are often included in Montreal weather forecasts. The warmest month is July with a daily average of 20.9°C (70°F). The lowest temperature ever recorded is −37.8°C (−36.0°F) on January 15, 1957, and the highest temperature ever was 37.6°C (99.7°F) on August 1, 1975 [3].

Moderate to high humidity is common in the summer. In spring and autumn, rainfall averages between 55 to 94 mm (2.5 to 4 inches) a month. Some snow in spring and autumn is normal. Similarly, late heat waves as well as "Indian summers" are a regular feature of the climate.

Despite its widely varying climate, the Montreal region supports a diverse array of plants and wildlife. The maple is one of the most common trees, and the sugar maple in particular is an enduring symbol of Montreal and Quebec, thanks to the production of maple syrup.

Demographics

See also: List of famous Montrealers The Greater Montreal area has a population of 3,607,000 people (Statistics Canada 2004), including the neighbouring major cities of Laval and Longueuil, among other smaller cities. Montreal proper will be home to 1.5 million people after the demerger set for January 1, 2006. A resident of Montreal is known as a Montrealer in English, and a Montréalais(e) in French. Residents sometimes refer to the city by the shorthand name of MTL, or occasionally by the Pierre Elliot Trudeau Airport designation of YUL. The large population of Montreal justifies the city having its own postal district together with Laval; i.e. all postal codes in Montreal and Laval, and only postal codes in Montreal and Laval, begin with H.

Most Montrealers speak French as their first language; a sizeable minority speak English, but a majority of residents have at least a working knowledge of both languages. This trend has increased after the French language reforms of the 1970s.

About 67.8% of the population of the Greater Montreal Area is composed of francophones. 18.4% are allophone (they have neither French nor English as their first language) and 13.8% are native Anglophones.

The demographics change on the Island of Montreal island itself, however, with francophones constituting 53% of the population, Anglophones 18%, and allophones 29%. A majority of allophones speak French or English as a second language. A May 2004 survey noted that 53% of the people in Montreal speak both French and English, while 37% speak only French and 7% speak only English.


Ethnicities

The European or White population is vastly French, Irish, and Italian.

According to StatCan the largest 4 ethnic groups are Canadian: 55.7% (1 885 085), French: 26.6% (900 485), Italian: 6.6% (224 460), and Irish: 4.7% (161,235).

Interestingly StatCan comes to the conclusion that those who identified as Canadian are those who are most likely British/Irish/French origin and have been in Canada for many generations.

Around 74.5% of the population is Roman Catholic, and other Christian faiths constitute another 10.0% of the population.

While the official language of Montreal is French, services are usually also offered in English in downtown and tourist areas as well as in areas designated as bilingual boroughs. The Irish settled in Montreal and the province of Quebec for centuries, as they saw it as a more inviting place than many other parts of the British Empire. The Irish and French shared a common religion, Roman Catholicism. This made it easier for the Irish to be accepted and not discriminated against, as they were in Toronto (York). A large number arrived during the Great Famine of 1845-1852 in Ireland, which resulted in many orphans being adopted by French families. The tide of immigration continued for many years and by some estimates, it is believed that nearly 40% of Francophones in Montreal have a mixture of French and Irish heritage, as suggested by the non-French surnames possessed by a significant number of Montrealers. See also Historica Minute: Orphans.

Each of the many neighbourhoods in the city has a predominant language. The parts of the city that lie to the west of Saint Lawrence Boulevard (boulevard Saint-Laurent) — and also known as "The Main" — can be said to be predominantly Anglophone, while the neighbourhoods to the east are predominantly Francophone. However there are a handful of predominately French neighbourhoods west of Saint Lawrence, notably Saint-Henri, LaSalle, Lachine and L'Île-Bizard. Westmount, on the south western slopes of Mont Royal, is traditionally the home of wealthy Anglophones, while Outremont, on the opposite side, is the home of wealthy Francophones. However, these distinctions are increasingly becoming obsolete in fact and in the public mind. Speakers of both languages can be found in all parts of the city.

Montreal is the home or former home of many famous people, including two prime ministers, many well-known artists and musicians, and a number of politicians.

Although not as obvious as for Quebec city, rather wide and dispersed green areas can be found in Montreal, most of which appear to be influenced by British green areas. This can also be seen of several buildings. Most people visiting the city from Europe can notice this and many tourists from the UK can easily feel at home.

Economy

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McGill College Avenue in downtown Montreal

Once the largest city in Canada, Montreal remains a vibrant major centre of commerce, industry, culture, finance, and world affairs. Montreal is a major port city, being at the start of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, a deep-draft inland waterway which links it to the industrial centres of the Great Lakes. As one of the most important ports in Canada, it is a trans-shipment point for grain, sugar, petroleum products, machinery, and consumer goods. For this reason, it is part of the railway backbone of Canada and has always been an extremely important rail city; it is the eastern terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway and home to the headquarters of the Canadian National Railway.

Montreal industries include pharmaceuticals, high technology, textile and clothing manufacturing (the schamata industry), higher education, electronic goods, software engineering (specifically video games), building and city engineering, transportation devices, printed goods, fabric, and tobacco.

Montreal is one of the world's top aerospace industry centres. It is often said that Montreal is the only city in the world where an entire airplane can be built, from the start of engine crafting to the last paint drop. The leading wagon of the industry is unquestionably Bombardier, a manufacturer best known for medium-sized aircraft.

The headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency are located in Longueuil, southeast of Montreal. Montreal also hosts the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO, a United Nations body); the World Anti-Doping Agency (an Olympic body); and the International Air Transport Association (IATA); as well as some 60 other international organizations in various fields.

Places in Montreal

Downtown Montreal

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Montreal skyline
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Montreal skyline at night
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Montreal skyline
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Montreal skyline at night

Downtown Montreal lies at the foot of Mount Royal, which is designated as a major urban park. The Downtown area contains dozens of notable skyscrapers—which, by law, cannot be higher than Mount Royal—including the aforementioned 1000 de La Gauchetière and 1250 René-Lévesque, as well as Ieoh Ming Pei's Place Ville-Marie. The Tour de la bourse is also a significant building in Montreal, as it's where all stock and derivative trades take place (Montreal World trade center), and is also home to a successful program to encourage nesting peregrine falcons.

This cruciform office tower (Place Ville-Marie), built in 1962, sits atop an underground shopping mall that forms the nexus of Montreal's underground city, one of the world's largest, with indoor access to over 1,600 shops, restaurants, offices, and businesses, as well as metro stations, transportation terminals, and tunnels extending all over downtown. The central axis for downtown is Saint Catherine Street. Other streets like Peel, De La Montagne, Maisonneuve and Crescent are very popular as well. Downtown Montreal is located between the mountain Mount Royal and the river St Lawrence River.

Two man-made islands are located in front of the Montreal Skyline panorama, Île Ste. Hélène, and Ile Notre-Dame. The Notre Dame island hosts the Canadian Grand Prix and Formula One car races, as well as the Champ Car tournament. La Ronde (now owned by American company 6 Flags) is the biggest amusement park in Montreal and is located on Île Ste. Hélène. The International Fireworks Festival is held there every summer. The basic Skyline view may be seen from one of two lookouts on Mount Royal. The lookout at the Belevedere takes in downtown, the river, and the Montérégien Hills, and on clear days the Green Mountains of Vermont are visible. The view of eastern lookout on Remembrance Rd. sweeps out toward the Olympic Stadium, and beyond. Many tourists visit these lookouts. Montreal is known for the contrast between old and new. The Maison des Cooperants (a 146-metre-tall building) is right in front of an old church. Much of Old Montreal has been kept the way it was back in the day Montreal was first established. Old Montreal was a worldwide port, but shipping has been moved further east to the Port de Montreal site, leaving the Old Port/Vieux-Port as an historical area. The most recent trip to the North Pole departed from that specific port. The Montreal Skyline is ranked 8th in the Emporis in skyline views, a focal point in Montreal's recognition. The reason the Olympic Stadium was built 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) from downtown is that the owners thought that Montreal's downtown would expand to where the Olympic Stadium now stands.

Old Montreal

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Old Montreal in the late evening. Foto: Nils Fretwurst

Southeast of downtown is Old Montreal (Vieux-Montréal), a historic centre with such attractions as the Old Port, Place Jacques-Cartier, City Hall, Place d'Armes, Pointe-à-Callière Museum, and the Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica. Buildings and roads in Old Montreal have been maintained or restored to keep the look of the city in its earliest days as a settlement. Old Montreal was a worldwide port, but shipping has been moved further east to the Port de Montreal site, leaving the Old Port/Vieux-Port as an historical area. The most recent trip to the North Pole departed from that specific port. Downtown and Old Montreal are connected by the recent Quartier international de Montréal development.

Olympic Village

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The Olympic Stadium, in the city's eastern section.

Montreal was host to one of the most successful World's Fairs in history, Expo '67. Partially based upon the success of the World's Fair, Montreal was awarded the 1976 Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium has the world's tallest inclined tower and, until the end of the 2004 season, was the home of the Montreal Expos baseball team. The Olympic complex also includes the Montreal Biodome, Montreal Insectarium, and the Montreal Botanical Garden, one of the largest botanical gardens in the world, second only to Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in England.

Today, the CFL's Montreal Alouettes play their last game of their season and playoff games in the Olympic Stadium. It is nicknamed the "Big O" because of its oval shaped roof. It holds up to 60 000 fans for a football game and it may hold more in the future when the unused seats in back of the bleachers are opened.

Museums and Cultural Centres

Montreal is the centre of Quebec culture and a major centre of Canadian culture in general. It has many specialized museums such as the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (MMFA), the Musée d'art contemporain (MAC), the Redpath Museum, the McCord Museum of Canadian History, and the Canadian Centre for Architecture. The Place des Arts cultural complex houses the MAC and several theatres, and is the seat of the Montreal Opera and for the moment the Montreal Symphony Orchestra, which is slated to receive a new concert hall adjacent to Place des Arts.


Religious Sanctuaries

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The Saint Joseph's Oratory is the largest church in Canada.

Nicknamed "the city of saints," or "la ville aux cent clochers" (the city of a hundred belltowers), Montreal is renowned for its churches. As described by Mark Twain, "This is the first time I was ever in a city where you couldn't throw a brick without breaking a church window." The city has four Roman Catholic basilicas: Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral, the aforementioned Notre-Dame Basilica, St. Patrick's Basilica, and Saint Joseph's Oratory. The Oratory is the largest church in Canada, with the largest dome of its kind in the world after that of Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome.

Other well-known churches include the pilgrimage church of Notre-Dame-du-Bon-Secours, which is sometimes called the Sailors' Church, and the Anglican Christ Church Cathedral, which was completely excavated and suspended in mid-air during the construction of part of the Underground City. All of the above are major tourist destinations, particularly Notre-Dame and the Oratory.

An impressive number of other churches can be found, as such that a five minute walk is usually enough to find another one. A common expression of Montrealers is that we stumble into them walking.

Chinatown

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Chinatown in Montreal

Montreal has a small but active Chinatown (Quartier chinois) just south of downtown, featuring many Chinese shops and restaurants, as well as a number of Vietnamese establishments. Several of these restaurants offer dim sum from as early as seven a.m. to three p.m. and can be quite crowded, especially on Sundays. The principal axes of Chinatown are Saint Lawrence Boulevard and La Gauchetière Street.

The Gay Village

Montreal is known as a Queer or Gay-friendly city. Its pride festival, Divers/Cité, is the largest in North America; organizers estimate that it drew 1.4 million people in 2002. It benefits from financial support from all three levels of government. Montreal is home to one of the largest gay villages in North America, centred around the downtown Beaudry metro station (known in French as le Village gai). Montreal is an epicentre of Queer life and culture in Canada and hosts several circuit parties every year. The 2006 World Outgames are to be held in Montreal.

The Plateau

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A typical Montreal's house in Plateau

Montreal's trendy and colourful Plateau neighbourhood is located on the twin North-South axes of Saint Laurent Boulevard and Saint Denis Street, and East-West axis of Mount Royal Avenue. The cobbled, pedestrian-only Prince Arthur Street is also located in this neighbourhood. In the summer, night life often seems as active as in the day in this area.

Mount Royal

Mount Royal is Montreal's outstanding urban park, and was designed by Frederick Olmstead, best known as the designer of New York's Central Park. Mount Royal features include the Chateau overlooking downtown Montreal and Beaver Lake. It is topped by an illuminated cross that has become a Montreal landmark. Observant hikers on its many trails will find an abundance of small wildlife. In the winter, it is home to numerous cross-country ski trails.

Every Sunday in the summer, hundreds of people gather at the foot of Mount Royal for several hours of drumming, dancing, and juggling (among many other activities), in an event that has come to be known as the Tam-Tams. It is unclear how this event started; but, as it has no formal organization and has carried on both in a lively and peaceful way since at least the late 1980s, it remains a popular event.

Night Life

Saint Denis Street is also the heart of the Latin Quarter of Montreal (Quartier latin), which is just south of the Plateau and filled with clubs, bars, and street festivals. The principal east-west axes of this district are Saint Catherine Street and Boulevard de Maisonneuve, with the Saint Denis as its north-south axis. The mood is bohemian.

Crescent Street is "party central" for Montreal's Anglophone population, lying at the edge of the Concordia Ghetto (around the Concordia University campus where many students live). Throughout the summer, it features street fairs and festivals. The Formula 1 Canadian Grand Prix unofficially starts off Montreal's non-stop festival season in the summer. Crescent Street also features many clubs and bars.

St Laurent is also filled with bars and clubs, and the best place to find nightlife, along with cozy restaurants which open their terraces in the summer.

Sports

Montreal is famous for its hockey-hungry fans. The Montreal Canadiens is one of the oldest teams of the NHL, and a member of the 'Original Six'. Montreal is also the site of two high-profile racing events each year: the aforementioned Canadian Grand Prix, and the Molson Indy Montreal of the Champcars Series. Both races take place at the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve on Ile Notre-Dame. On July 13, 1982, Montreal hosted the first Major League Baseball All-Star Game outside the United States. The most important sporting event in Montreal's history, however, was when Montreal played host to the 1976 Summer Olympics.

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11th FINA World Championships, Montreal, 2005

Once the favored sport mainly of Montreal anglophones, football fever has spread across Quebec, with the pro football Montreal Alouettes of the CFL drawing packed crowds at the small but picturesque Molson Stadium, part of McGill University and nestled against the slopes of Mt-Royal. As noted above, the Alouettes play their last regular season game and post season games at the much-larger and enclosed Olympic Stadium, which has also been home to a number of Grey Cups, the CFL's championship game. University football has returned to the Universite de Montreal, and continues at Concordia and McGill universites -- although the latter has been rocked by a hazing scandal and has shut down its program for the remainder of the 2005 season.

Montreal also has an All Sports radio station named The Team 990.

In July 2005 Montreal hosted the 11th FINA World aquatic sports Championship[4].


In 2006 Montreal will attract some 16,000 LGBT athletes, who will participate in the 1st ever World Outgames. The Outgames are being hailed as the largest international event in the city of Montreal since the 1976 Olympics.




Major Sports Venues

Venue Capacity Team/Tournament/Attraction
Circuit Gilles Villeneuve 100,000 Canadian Grand Prix and Molson Indy
Olympic Stadium 65,255 Montreal Expos until 2005 Montreal Alouettes (playoff games)
Hippodrome de Montreal 25,000 Horse Racing
Bell Centre 21,273 Montreal Canadiens
Percival Molson Memorial Stadium 20,202. (25,000 by 2007) Montreal Alouettes, McGill Redmen
Île Sainte-Hélène Aquatic Complex 13,000 XI Fina World Championships
Stade Uniprix 12,000 Rogers Cup
Complexe sportif Claude-Robillard 9,500 Montreal Impact Montreal Impact plan to move to new 13,000 seat stadium by 2007.

Current Professional Franchises

Logo Club League Venue Established Championships Montreal Canadiens Logo Montreal Canadiens National Hockey League Bell Centre 1909 24 Montreal Alouettes logo Montreal Alouettes Canadian Football League Percival Molson Memorial Stadium Olympic Stadium (playoffs) 1996 6 Montreal Impact Logo Montreal Impact United Soccer Leagues Complexe sportif Claude-Robillard 1993 1 Montreal Matrix Logo Montreal Matrix American Basketball Association Centre Pierre Charbonneau 2005 0

Former professional franchises

Logo Club League Venue Years Championships Montréal Expos Logo Montréal Expos Major League Baseball Olympic Stadium 1969-2005 0 Montreal Express logo Montreal Express National Lacrosse League Bell Centre 2001-2004 0 Montreal Roadrunners logo Montreal Roadrunners Roller Hockey International Montreal Forum (1994-1995) Molson Centre (1996-1997) 1994-1997 0 Montreal Supra Logo Montreal Supra Canadian Soccer League 1988-1992 0 Montreal Machine Logo Montreal Machine World League of American Football 1991-1992 0 Montreal Concordes Logo Montreal Concordes Canadian Football League 1982-1985 0 American Hockey League Logo Montreal Voyageurs American Hockey League 1969-1971 0 American Hockey League Logo Montreal Maroons National Hockey League Montreal Forum 1924-1938 2 American Hockey League Logo Montreal Wanderers National Hockey League 1903-1917 7 Montreal Shamrocks Amateur Hockey Association

Canadian Amateur Hockey League

Eastern Canada Amateur Hockey Association

Canadian Hockey Association

National Hockey Association


1896-1898 1898-1905


1905-1909


1909-1910 1909-1910 Montreal Royals International League Delorimier Downs 1939-1960 0 2

Transportation

Montreal is a transportation hub for eastern Canada, with well-developed air, road, rail, and maritime links to the rest of Canada, as well as the United States and Europe.

Metro

The Montreal Metro was inaugurated in 1966 in time for the Expo 67 World's Fair held in the city the following year. Montreal is also served by a commuter rail system, which is managed and operated by the Agence métropolitaine de transport.

The metro was constructed after the Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau. He also brought the Olympics in Montreal in 1976, adding a metro station in the Olympic Stadium.

Airports

Montreal has two international airports, although only one is currently open for passenger flights. Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (formerly Dorval Airport, the name most locals still use) in the City of Dorval serves all commercial passenger traffic. To the north of the city is Montréal-Mirabel International Airport in Mirabel, which was envisioned as Montreal's primary airport but which now serves only cargo flights. In 2004, Montreal-Trudeau handled 10.3 million passengers and will handle 11.4 million in 2005.

Roads

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The Jacques Cartier Bridge spans the St. Lawrence between Montreal and Longueuil.

Like many major cities, Montreal has a problem with vehicular traffic congestion, especially from off-island suburbs such as Laval on Île Jésus, and Longueuil on the southeastern shore. The width of the Saint Lawrence River has made the construction of fixed links to the southeastern shore expensive and difficult. Accordingly, there are only four road bridges (plus one road tunnel, two railway bridges, and a metro line), whereas the far narrower Rivière des Prairies is spanned by eight road bridges (six to Laval and two to the north shore).

The island of Montreal is a hub for the Quebec Autoroute system, and is served by Quebec Autoroutes A-10, A-15, A-13, A-20, A-25, A-40, A-520, and A-720. Many of these Autoroutes are frequently congested at rush-hour, and make deplacements in and around the city during this time difficult.

Since Montreal is on an island, the directions used in the city plan do not precisely correspond with compass directions, as they are oriented to the geography of the island. North and south are defined on an axis roughly perpendicular to the St. Lawrence River and the Rivière des Prairies: North is towards the Rivière des Prairies, and south is towards the St. Lawrence. East and west directions are defined as roughly parallel to the St. Lawrence River (which flows southwest to northeast) and the Rivière des Prairies. East is downstream, and west is upstream.

Saint Lawrence Boulevard divides Montreal into east and west sectors. Streets that lie on both sides of Saint Lawrence Boulevard are divided into two parts, which have Est (East) or Ouest (West) appended to their names. Streets that lie on only one side of The Main (Saint Lawrence Boulevard) do not generally contain a direction in their names. Address numbering begins at one at Saint Lawrence Boulevard. East of it, numbers increase to the east, while west of it, numbers increase to the west. On north-south streets, house numbers begin at the St. Lawrence River and increase to the north. Odd numbers are on the east or north sides of the street, with even numbers on the west or south sides. Numbered streets generally run north and south, and the street numbers increase to the east.

According to the rules of the Commission de toponymie du Québec, the French-language form of street names is the only official one, and is to be used in all languages: e.g. chemin de la Côte-des-Neiges; rue Sainte-Catherine; côte du Beaver Hall. Most English speakers, however, use English generic equivalents such as "street" or "road", as do English-language media such as the Montreal Gazette. Officially bilingual boroughs have the right to use such names in official contexts, such as on street signs. In the past, a number of streets had both English and French names, such as "avenue du Parc" or "Park Avenue", "rue de la Montange" or "Mountain Street", "rue Saint-Jacques" or "Saint James Street". Some of these names are still in common colloquial use in English, and perpetuated by the tourism industry. Many streets incorporate an English specific name into French, such as "chemin Queen Mary", "rue University", "avenue McGill College". There are also a few cases where two names are official, such as "chemin du Bord-du-Lac/Lakeshore Road". Ironically many francophones have resisted the change to some French street designations; in the Verdun area, "rue de l'Église" street is referred to as "rue Church".

In English, the pre-Francization names are still commonly used, thus, although only the French is 'official', in English one often hears names such as Park Avenue, Mountain Street, Saint Lawrence Boulevard, Pine Avenue, Saint John's Boulevard etc. Canada Post accepts the French specific with English generic, as in "de la Montagne Street" or "du Parc Avenue", although many such forms are never used in speaking. Another anomaly that typifies this kind of mixed heritage and history is René Lévesque Boulevard. Once called "Dorchester Boulevard" in its entirety, this long east-west street was renamed for Quebec nationalist René Lévesque, except for sections that run through two suburbs who refused the renaming decision: the very Anglophone town of Westmount, and the very francophone town of Montréal-Est. It is still often referred to as "Dorchester."

It is useful to note that, in Montreal as in other cities, the generic is usually omitted in either language, so one would simply talk of Park (or Du Parc), Mountain (or Montagne), Saint Lawrence (or Saint Laurent), University, McGill College, Doctor Penfield, or Fairmount. In recent years Montréal and most of its suburbs have dispensed entirely with such generic and linguistically fraught terms on their street signage.

Education

Universities

File:Mcgill-u.jpg
McGill University

As noted above, Montreal has a large population of post-secondary students. Its five urban universities are:

File:Montreal arrondissements.png
Current borough divisions
File:Montreal-boroughs-post-demerger.png
Borough divisions and demerged municipalities after 1 January 2006

Neighbouring Municipalities

  North: Laval, Lachenaie, Repentigny  
West: Vaudreuil-Dorion, L'Île-Perrot Montreal East: Longueuil
  South: Kahnawake  

See also

Template:Spoken Wikipedia

Footnotes

Notes

  1. According to The Canadian Style, the official style guide of the federal and provincial governments, the name of the city is to be written with an accent as Montréal in all printed materials in both English and French. However, it is more common to omit the accent in English usage and keep the accent in French usage.

References


External links

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