Template:US state Michigan is a state in the United States. The name is derived from Lake Michigan, which in turn is believed to come from the Chippewa Indian word meicigama, meaning "great water." Bounded by four of the Great Lakes, Michigan has the longest freshwater shoreline in the continental United States, the longest total shoreline after Alaska (including island shorelines ), and more recreational boats than any other state in the union.
- 1 History
- 2 Michigan history timeline
- 3 Law and Government
- 4 Geography
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Important cities
- 8 Education
- 9 Professional sports teams
- 10 State symbols
- 11 Miscellaneous information
- 12 See also
- 13 External links
Michigan was home to various Native American tribes for centuries before the arrival of Europeans. When the first European explorers arrived, the most populous and influential tribes were the linguistically and ethnically related Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi. Within Michigan, the Chippewa were the most populous, estimated at between 25,000 and 35,000, and were predominant in the western Upper Peninsula and northern Wisconsin, though they were also present in other areas of the Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan. The Ottawa primarily inhabited the area around the Straits of Mackinac and areas of Northern Michigan, while the Potawatomi resided primarily in southwest Michigan. The three tribes co-existed peacefully and formed a loose confederation known as the Council of Three Fires. Other tribes with a presence in Michigan were the Mascouten, Miami, and Wyandot (or Huron).
Michigan was explored and settled by French voyageurs in the 17th century. The first Europeans to reach what later became Michigan were Étienne Brûlé's group in 1622. The first European settlement was made in 1668 by Father Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit missionary who established a mission at Sault Ste. Marie. In 1679, Robert Cavelier Sieur de la Salle directed the construction of the Griffin--the first European sailing vessel on the upper Great Lakes. That same year, La Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Detroit on the straits between Lakes St. Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community at present-day Detroit would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and repel British advances. The one hundred soldiers and workers that accompanied Cadillac built a 200-square-foot palisade and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first white women to settle in the Michigan wilderness. The town quickly became a major fur-trading and shipping post. At the same time, the French strengthened Fort Michilimackinac at the Straits of Mackinac in order to better control their lucrative fur-trading empire. By the mid-eighteenth century, the French had also occupied forts at present-day Niles and Sault Ste. Marie. Most of the rest of the region remained unsettled by whites, however.
By 1760, the French would lose their North American empire with their defeat by the British in the French and Indian War (1754–1763). Michigan passed to Great Britain in 1763 and then to the new United States two decades later. The population grew slowly until the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which brought large numbers of settlers.
By the 1830s, Michigan had some 80,000 residents, more than enough to apply for statehood. A state government was formed in 1835, although Congressional recognition of the state languished due to a boundary dispute with Ohio, with both sides claiming a 468 square mile (1,210 km²) strip of land that included the important port city of Toledo on Lake Erie and an area to the west then known as the "Great Black Swamp." The dispute eventually culminated into what would be known as the Toledo War when Michigan and Ohio militia maneuvered in the area. Ultimately, Congress awarded the "Toledo Strip" to Ohio, and Michigan, having received the western part of the Upper Peninsula as a concession, formally entered the Union on January 26, 1837.
Thought to be useless at the time of its addition to Michigan, it was soon discovered that the Upper Peninsula was a rich and important source of lumber, iron, and copper, which would become the state's most sought-after natural resources.
Michigan's economy underwent a massive shift at the turn of the 20th century. The birth of the automotive industry, with Henry Ford's first plant in the Highland Park suburb of Detroit, marked the beginning of a new era in personal transportation. It was a development that not only transformed Detroit and Michigan, but permanently altered the socio-economic climate of the United States and much of the world, for that matter.
Since World War II, Detroit's industrial base has eroded as auto companies abandoned some of the area's industrial parks in favor of less expensive labor found overseas and in southern U.S. states. Still, with 10 million residents, Michigan remains a large and influential state and ranks 8th in population among the 50 states.
Michigan history timeline
Early European history
- 1622 Étienne Brûlé and his fellow explorers from Grenoble, France, were probably the first white men to see Lake Superior.
- 1668 Père (Father) Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, the first European settlement in Michigan
- 1701 Antoine de Lamothe Cadillac, with his lieutenant Alphonse de Tonty, established a trading post on the Detroit River which they name Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit; now the present site of Detroit.
- 1760 Detroit was captured by the British.
- 1760s Chief Pontiac led a major revolt of the Ottawa tribe against the British.
- 1783 The area that is now Michigan is included with the territory ceded by Great Britain to the United States by the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War. The U.S. did not take control of the territory until 1796.
- 1796 Detroit and other posts in Michigan were turned over to the United States under terms of the Jay Treaty. Wayne County was established as an administrative division of the Northwest Territory.
U.S. territorial history
- 1805 Michigan Territory was created, with Detroit designated as the seat of government. William Hull appointed as governor. Detroit was destroyed by fire.
- 1813 Lewis Cass became Territorial Governor.
- 1817 The University of Michigan is established in Detroit, the first public university in the state.
- 1819 In the Treaty of Saginaw, the Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi ceded more than six million acres, or 24,000 km² in the central portion of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan to the United States.
- 1821 With the Treaty of Chicago, the Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi ceded all the lands south of the Grand River to the United States.
- 1823 Congress transferred legislative powers previously exercised by the Territorial Governor and Judges to a nine-member Legislative Council, appointed by the U.S. President who selected them from eighteen persons chosen by the people. The Council was expanded to thirteen members in 1825 and made an elected body in 1827.
- 1828 Territorial Capitol built in Detroit at a cost of $24,500.
- 1835 First Constitutional Convention. Stevens T. Mason inaugurated as the first Governor. A minor conflict with Ohio over the city of Toledo, Ohio, known as the Toledo War, contributed to delaying Michigan's statehood. As a resolution, Ohio received Toledo and the Toledo Strip but Michigan gained the western two-thirds of Michigan's Upper Peninsula.
- 1837 Admitted as a free state into the union (the 26th state), it was admitted a few months after the slave state of Arkansas.
U.S. state history
- 1837 The Panic of 1837 was a severe setback to the nascent state bank and to several ambitious programs of public improvements, including the Clinton-Kalamazoo Canal
- 1838 Patriot War
- 1840 Douglass Houghton reported finding copper deposits on the Keweenaw Peninsula.
- 1846 Marji-Gesick, an Ojibwa Indian, pointed out a large deposit of iron ore to prospector Philo Everett near the present-day city of Negaunee.
- 1847 A law was passed by the State Legislature to re-locate from Detroit the State Capital to a site "in the township of Lansing, in the county of Ingham."
- 1855 Michigan State University is founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, becoming the first land grant university in the United States.
- 1879 New State Capitol dedicated in Lansing. The structure cost $1,510,130.
- 1890s and 1900s Ford, Chrysler and General Motors were founded in southeastern Michigan.
- 1937 Flint Sit-Down Strike ended with official recognition of the United Auto Workers by General Motors.
- 1943 Riot broke out pitting whites against blacks during wartime.
- 1957 Five-mile long Mackinac Bridge opened November 1.
- 1967 Race riots struck the city of Detroit. After 5 days of rioting, 43 people lay dead, 1189 injured and over 7000 people had been arrested. The riot had lasting effects on the entire metro region and is usually cited as one of the reasons the Detroit area is among the most segregated areas in the United States.
- 1974 Gerald R. Ford of Grand Rapids became the 38th President of the United States.
- 1987 Michigan celebrated 150 years of statehood.
- 2002 Michigan elects its first woman governor, Jennifer Granholm (D).
Law and Government
- Capital: Lansing
- Law/Government of state
- Referendum and Voter Initiative: Michigan's constitution provides for voter initiative and referendum (Article II, § 9 []), defined as "the power to propose laws and to enact and reject laws, called the initiative, and the power to approve or reject laws enacted by the legislature, called the referendum. The power of initiative extends only to laws which the legislature may enact under this constitution."
Michigan counties and townships are statutory units of government, meaning that they have only those powers expressly provided or fairly implied by state law. Cities and villages are vested with home rule powers, meaning that they can do almost anything not prohibited by law.
There are two types of townships in Michigan: general law and charter. Charter township status was created by the state legislature in 1947 and grants additional powers and stream-lined administration in order to provide greater protection against annexation by a city. As of April 2001, there were 127 charter townships in Michigan.
Like other northern states, the Republican Party dominated Michigan until the Great Depression. In 1912, Michigan was one of the few states to support progressive third party candidate Teddy Roosevelt for president. In recent years, the state's strong industrial and union heritage has made the state lean Democratic, at least in national elections. Michigan has supported Democrats in the last four presidential elections. In 2004, John Kerry narrowly defeated George Bush, winning Michigan's 17 electoral votes by a margin of 3 percentage points with 51.2% of the vote. Republicans' greatest strength is in the western, northern, and rural parts of the state, especially in the Grand Rapids area. Democrats are strongest in the east, especially in metropolitan Detroit.
|See:||List of Michigan counties||Islands of Michigan||List of Michigan rivers|
Michigan encompasses 96,810 square miles (250,630 square kilometers), making it the largest state east of the Mississippi River if territorial water is included. Georgia and Florida each have a slightly larger land area, however.
Michigan borders Indiana and Ohio to the south, and Wisconsin to the southwest of the Upper Peninsula. Michigan also borders Minnesota, Illinois, the Canadian province of Ontario, and the Canadian First Nation (Indian) reserve of Walpole Island, but only on water boundaries in the Great Lakes system. The highest point is Mount Arvon in the Upper Peninsula at 1,979 feet (603 m). The highest point in the Lower Peninsula is not definitely established but is either Briar Hill at 1,705 feet (520 meters), or one of several points closely nearby.
Michigan consists of two peninsulas:
The Lower Peninsula is shaped like a mitten and is 277 miles (446 km) long from north to south and 195 miles (314 km)from east to west. The heavily forested Upper Peninsula (often called simply "The U.P.") is as large as Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island combined, but has less than 330,000 inhabitants, who are sometimes called "Yoopers" (from "U.P.'ers") and whose speech has been heavily influenced by the large number of Scandinavian and Canadian immigrants who settled the area during the mining boom of the late 1800's.
See also Highway map of Michigan
These two sections are connected only by the five-mile-long Mackinac Bridge—the third longest suspension bridge in the world. The two peninsulas are surrounded by an extensive Great Lakes shoreline. Other than Alaska, Michigan has the longest shoreline of any state—2,242 miles (3,607 km). An additional 879 miles (1415 km) can be added if islands are included. This equals the length of the Atlantic Coast, from Maine to Florida. The Great Lakes which touch the two peninsulas of Michigan are Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. No point in Michigan is more than 6 miles (10 km) from an inland lake or more than 85 miles (137 km) from one of the Great Lakes, and the state has more than 11,000 inland lakes and more than 36,000 miles (58,000 km) of rivers and streams.
Detroit, Michigan is the only major city in the contiguous United States that is actually due north of Canada.
- Isle Royale National Park
- Keweenaw National Historical Park
- Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore
- Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore
- Father Marquette National Memorial
Michigan is primarily known as the birthplace of the automobile industry. However, it is also home to a thriving tourist industry, with destinations such as Traverse City, Mackinac Island, Saugatuck and the entire Upper Peninsula drawing vacationers, hunters and nature enthusiasts from across the United States and Canada. Although it has an urban image to non-visitors, Michigan is actually 50 percent forest, much of it quite remote. Both the forests and thousands of miles of beaches are heavy draws. Tourists also flock to many of the museums, particularly those in the Detroit area.
Hunting is a major component of Michigan's economy. Michigan ranks 1st in the nation in licensed hunters (over one million) who contribute $2 billion annually to its economy. Over three-quaters of a million hunters particpate in White-tailed deer season alone. Some K-12 school districts in rural areas of Michigan go so far as to cancel school on the opening day of rifle season, due to safety and attendance concerns.
Michigan's Department of Natural Resources manages the largest dedicated state forest system in the nation. The Forest products industry and recreational users contribute $12 billion and 200,000 associated jobs annually to its economy. Michigan has more than 90 native species of trees, more than all of Europe combined.
See also: List of companies based in Michigan
- State income
- The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Michigan's total state product in 2003 was $365 billion. Per capital personal income in 2003 was $31,178, 20th in the nation.
- Major industries/products
- state taxes
Michigan's total population as of 2004 was 10,112,620 (U.S. Census Bureau estimate). The state had a foreign-born population of 594,700 (5.9% of the state population).
The state's population increased by 817,000 between 1990 and 2004, an 8.8% growth
Race The racial makeup of Michigan, according to the 2000 Census:
The five largest reported ancestries in Michigan are: German (20.4%), African American (14.2%), Irish (10.7%), English (9.9%), Polish (8.6%). 3.3% of the population is of Hispanic origin, a category that may include members of any race.
Americans of German ancestry are present throughout most of Michigan. Nordic (especially Finnish), British, and French ancestry have a notable presence in the Upper Peninsula. Western Michigan is well-known for the Dutch heritage of many residents (the highest concentration of any state), especially in the Grand Rapids-Holland area. Metro Detroit has many residents of Polish, Irish, and Arab ancestry, and African Americans are a majority in the city of Detroit.
The religious affiliations of the people of Michigan are:
- Christian – 82%
- Muslim – 2%
- Jewish – 1%
- Other Religions – <1%
- Non-Religious – 15%
Michigan has a higher percentage of Muslims (in the Detroit area) and a higher percentage of Reformed Christians (in Grand Rapids and the western part of the state) than any other American state.
The largest cities in Michigan are (according to the 2000 census):
- Detroit population 951,270 (also known as "Motor City" and Motown).
- Grand Rapids population 197,800 (The Furniture City).
- Warren population 138,247.
- Flint population 124,943 (The birthplace of General Motors, also known as the "Vehicle City") .
- Sterling Heights population 124,471.
- Lansing population 119,128 (the state capital).
- Ann Arbor population 114,024 (the home of the University of Michigan)
- Livonia, population 100,545
- Dearborn, population 98,000 (headquarters of the Ford Motor Company; birthplace of Henry Ford)
Other important cities include:
- Battle Creek (Cereal City U.S.A.)
- Bay City (major port on the Saginaw River)
- Marquette (largest city in the Upper Peninsula with 19,661 people).
- Traverse City (the Cherry Capital of the World)
- Midland (headquarters of the Dow Chemical Company)
- Frankenmuth (Michigan's Little Bavaria)
- Holland (home of the Michigan Dutch)
- East Lansing (home of Michigan State University)
- Saginaw (largest of the tri-cities)
- Sault Ste. Marie (home of the Soo Locks and Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge)
20 wealthiest places in Michigan
- Barton Hills, $110,683
- Bloomfield Hills, $104,920
- Lake Angelus, $83,792
- Bingham Farms, $74,588
- Franklin, $71,033
- Grosse Pointe Shores, $69,639
- Orchard Lake Village, $67,881
- Michiana, $63,558
- Bloomfield Township, $62,716
- Birmingham, $59,314
- Grosse Pointe Farms, $54,846
- Grosse Pointe, $53,942
- Grand Beach, $51,788
- Sylvan Lake, $48,744
- Huntington Woods, $45,264
- South Gull Lake, $45,175
- West Bloomfield Township, $44,885
- Northville, $43,454
- Beverly Hills, $43,452
- Grosse Ile, $42,150
Of these 20 locations, half are located in Oakland County, just north of Detroit. Only three of these cities are located outside of Metro Detroit. Detroit, with a per capita income of $14,717, ranks 517th on the list of Michigan locations by per capita income. Benton Harbor is the poorest city in Michigan, with a per capita income of $8,965.
Colleges and universities
Community Colleges and Technical Schools
Professional sports teams
Other notable sports teams
- Detroit Fury, (recently disbanded) Arena Football League
- Detroit Demolition, National Women's Football Association
- Grand Rapids Rampage, Arena Football League
- Grand Rapids Griffins, American Hockey League
- Flint Generals, United Hockey League
- Kalamazoo Wings, United Hockey League
- Motor City Mechanics, United Hockey League
- Muskegon Fury, United Hockey League
- Port Huron Flags, United Hockey League
- Plymouth Whalers, Ontario Hockey League
- Saginaw Spirit, Ontario Hockey League
- Traverse City North Stars, North American Hockey League
- Alpena IceDiggers, North American Hockey League
Michigan's Sports Victories
- 1902 The University of Michigan Wolverines win the first-ever Rose Bowl (game).
- 1935 The Detroit Tigers win their first World Series.
- 1935 The Detroit Lions win their first National Football League championship.
- 1936 The Detroit Red Wings win their first Stanley Cup.
- 1936 The Detroit Red Wings win their second Stanley Cup.
- 1943 The Detroit Red Wings win their third Stanley Cup.
- 1945 The Detroit Tigers win their second World Series.
- 1950 The Detroit Red Wings win their fourth Stanley Cup.
- 1952 The Detroit Red Wings win their fifth Stanley Cup.
- 1952 The Detroit Lions win their second National Football League championship.
- 1953 The Detroit Lions win their third National Football League championship.
- 1954 The Detroit Red Wings win their sixth Stanley Cup.
- 1955 The Detroit Red Wings win their seventh Stanley Cup. (They would not win another for 42 years.)
- 1957 The Detroit Lions win their fourth National Football League championship.
- 1968 The Detroit Tigers win the World Series again.
- 1974 The Central Michigan University Chippewas win the NCAA Division II national football championship.
- 1975 The Northern Michigan University Wildcats win their first NCAA Division II national football championship.
- 1979 The Michigan State University Spartans become the first college in the state to win the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship.
- 1984 The Detroit Tigers win the World Series again.
- 1989 The University of Michigan Wolverines win their first NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship.
- 1989 The Detroit Pistons win their first NBA Championship.
- 1990 The Detroit Pistons win their second NBA Championship.
- 1997 The Detroit Red Wings win the Stanley Cup after a 42 year drought dating back to 1955.
- 1998 The Detroit Red Wings win their ninth Stanley Cup.
- 2000 The Michigan State University Spartans win their second NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship.
- 2001 The Arena Football League Grand Rapids Rampage win ArenaBowl XV and their first ArenaBowl championship.
- 2002 The Detroit Red Wings win their tenth Stanley Cup.
- 2002 The Detroit Demolition (known as the Detroit Danger at the time) win their first NWFA championship.
- 2002 The Grand Valley State University Lakers win their first NCAA Division II national football championship.
- 2003 The Detroit Shock win their first WNBA Championship in the WNBA Finals.
- 2003 The Detroit Demolition win their second NWFA Championship.
- 2003 Grand Valley State University Lakers win their second NCAA Division II national football championship.
- 2004 The Detroit Pistons win their third NBA Championship.
- 2004 The Detroit Demolition win their third NWFA Championship.
- 2005 The Detroit Demolition win their fourth NWFA Championship.
- State motto: Si Quaeris Peninsulam Amoenam Circumspice (If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you.)
- State song: My Michigan (official since 1937, but disputed amongst Michiganders)
- State bird: American Robin (since 1931)
- State mammal: White-tailed Deer (since 1997)
- State fish: Brook Trout (since 1965)
- State reptile: Painted Turtle (since 1995)
- State fossil: Mastodon (since 2000)
- State flower: Apple Blossom (adopted in 1897, official in 1997)
- State wildflower: Dwarf Lake Iris (since 1998)
- State tree: White Pine (since 1955)
- State stone: Petoskey stone (since 1965)
- State gem: Isle Royale greenstone (since 1973, also called chlorastrolite)
- State soil: Kalkaska Sand (since 1990)
Michigan is simultaneously known for its cities, supported by heavy industry, and its pristine wilderness, home to more than 11,000 lakes. The clang and clamor of metro Detroit's crowded thoroughfares and busy factories stand in vivid counterpoint to the tranquility found in virtually every corner of the state.
An individual from Michigan is called a "Michiganian" or "Michigander". A resident of Michigan's Upper Peninsula ("the U.P.") is often called a "Yooper" (or U.P.'er). In turn, residents of the lower peninsula may be jokingly referred to as "trolls" -- because they "live below the Mackinac Bridge." As the Lower Peninsula is famously shaped like a mitten, residents often use their left hand or right palm as a shorthand "map" to illustrate the part of the state from which they hail, or any other location to which they may be referring.
Its U.S. postal abbreviation is "MI" (traditional: "Mich."). The U.S. Navy's three ships called USS Michigan were named in honor of the state. Michigan is nicknamed the "Great Lakes State", and also the "Wolverine State", from a nickname earned during the Toledo War.
Michigan has over 130 lighthouses, the most of any U.S. state. The first lighthouses in Michigan were built between 1818 and 1822. They were built to project light at night and to serve as a landmark during the day to safely guide the passenger ships and freighters traveling the Great Lakes. See Lighthouses in the United States.
Michigan has the most registered boats (over 1 million) of any state in the Union.
Michigan's 2004 commemorative quarter featured the outline of the state and the surrounding lakes.
- State nicknames include the Wolverine State, Great Lakes State, Mitten State, and Winter Water Wonderland.
- The state motto, Si Quaeris Peninsulam Amoenam Circumspice is Latin for "If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you", a paraphrase of a statement made by British architect Sir Christopher Wren about his influence on London.
- The state stone, the Petoskey stone, is composed of fossilized coral (Hexagonaria pericarnata) from long ago when the middle of the continent was covered with a shallow sea.
- The state gem chlorastrolite, literally the green star stone, also known as the Isle Royale greenstone is found on Isle Royale and the Keweenaw peninsula.
- The state wildflower, the Dwarf Lake Iris (Iris lacustris), is a federally-listed threatened species.
- The state soil, Kalkaska Sand, ranges in color from black to yellowish brown, covers nearly a million acres (4,000 km²) in 29 counties.
- Michigan is the only state composed of two separate peninsulas.
- The Lower Peninsula of Michigan is nicknamed "The Mitten" because it resembles the palm of a right-hand mitten. When asked where in Michigan they come from, residents of the Lower Peninsula often point to the coresponding part of their right hand.
- The Upper Peninsula of Michigan is nicknamed "The U.P." Residents of the Upper Peninsula are called Yoopers (from U.P.-ers.)
- List of Governors of Michigan
- List of Michigan-related topics
- List of highways in Michigan
- List of Michigan counties
- List of people from Michigan
|Government||Tourism & Recreation||Culture & History|
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