List of early flying machines

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This is a listing of early flying machines.

Claims about what a flying machine is vary in countries and in books and encyclopedias. They all use different criteria when considering, among others, the validity of a claim, and the meaning of the phrase flying machine. These and other controversial issues are discussed in first flying machine.

In this list, various advancements are presented, including actual flying machines, prototypes, models, designs or important pieces of literature. But note that some of this information is disputed by some sources.

Literature or designs only

Inventor Accomplishment Year
Roger Bacon Secrets of Art and Nature: ornithopter design c. 1250
Leonardo da Vinci Ornithopter design and literature c. 1490
Emanuel Swedenborg Flying Machine design and literature 1714
Sir George Cayley The Forces of Flight: technical literature 1799
Le Comte Ferdinand Charles Honore Phillipe d'Esterno On The Flight Of Birds (Du Vol des Oiseaux): technical literature 1864
Louis Pierre Mouillard The Empire Of The Air (L'Empire de L'Air): literature 1865
Horatio Frederick Phillips Sustainer design, literature 1884 - 1907
James Means The Problem of Manflight, Aeronautical Annual literature 1894 - 1897
Martin Wiberg Patent for design of "Luftmaskin": liquid fuel rocket powered machine 1903

More than design or literature

Inventor Accomplishment Year
'Abbas Ibn Firnas Single flight of manned glider-wings 875
Eilmer of Malmesbury Also a single flight of manned glider-wings 1010
Unknown Chinese Manned kites are common. Reported by Marco Polo 1290
William Samuel Henson Aerial Steam Carriage 1842
John Stringfellow Stringfellow Machines 1848, 1868
Sir George Cayley Cayley Glider, flight of manned glider 1853
Rufus Porter New York to California Aerial Transport 1849
Jean Marie Le Bris Artificial Albatross 1857, 1867
Felix and Louis du Temple de la Croix Temple Steam Powered Monoplane prototype 1857 - 1877
James William Butler and Edmund Edwards Steam-Jet Dart 1865
Francis Herbert Wenham Wenham's Aerial Locomotion 1866
Jan Wnek Loty glider, many flights 1866
Frederick Marriott Marriott flying machines 1869
Alphonse Penaud Planophore, Penaud Toy Helicopter 1871
Thomas Moy Moy Aerial Steamer, 1875
Thomas Moy The Military Kite 1879
Charles F. Ritchel Ritchel Hand-powered Airship 1878
Victor Tatin Tatin flying machines 1879
Massia and Biot Massia-Biot Glider 1879? 1887?
Alexandre Goupil Goupi Monoplane, La Locomotion Aerienne 1883
John Joseph Montgomery Montgomery Monoplane and Tandem-Wing Gliders 1883 - 1911
Aleksandr Fyodorovich Mozhaiski Mozhaiski Monoplane 1884
Pichancourt Mechanical Birds 1889
Lawrence Hargrave Hargave flying machines and Box kites 1889 - 1893
Clement Ader Ader Bat, very low manned flight 1890 - 1897
Chuhachi Ninomiya Tamamushi model 1891
Otto Lilienthal Derwitzer Gliders, many flights 1891
Horatio Phillips Phillips Flying Machine 1893, 1906
Hiram Stevens Maxim Maxim Biplane 1894
Pablo Suarez Suarez Glider 1895
Percy Sinclair Pilcher Pilcher Hawk 1896
Octave Chanute and Augustus Herring Chanute and Herring Gliding Machines 1896
William Paul Butusov Albatross Soaring Machine 1896
William Frost Frost Airship Glider 1896
Samuel Pierpont Langley Langley Aerodromes 1896 - 1903
Carl Rickard Nyberg Flugan, very short manned flight 1897
Edson F. Gallaudet Gallaudet Wing Warping Kite 1898
Lyman Wiswell Gilmore, Jr. Gilmore Monoplane 1898
Wilhelm Kress Kress Waterborne Aeroplane 1901
Gustave Whitehead Whitehead Albatross, Whitehead No. 21 1901
Richard William Pearse Pearse Monoplane 1903
Karl Jatho Jatho Biplane 1903
Guido Dinelli Dinelli Glider, Aereoplano 1903, 1904
Wright brothers Wright Flyers, many powered flights 1903 - 1908
Ferdinand Ferber and Gabriel Voisin Archdeacon glider 1904
Louis Blériot and Gabriel Voisin Blériot-Voison floatplane glider, biplane 1905
Alberto Santos-Dumont 14-bis 1906
Traian Vuia Vuia I, Vuia II monoplanes 1906 - 1907
Louis Blériot Blériot V, Blériot XI 1907, 1909
Glenn H. Curtiss AEA June Bug 1908
Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) Silver Dart 1909
Duigan Brothers Duigan Pusher Biplane 1910

See also

External links