# Lattice group

*See lattice for other meanings of this term, both within and without mathematics.*

In mathematics, especially in geometry and group theory, a **lattice** in **R**^{n} is a discrete subgroup of **R**^{n} which spans the real vector space **R**^{n}. Every lattice in **R**^{n} can be generated from a basis for the vector space by forming all linear combinations with integral coefficients.

This concept is used in materials science, in which a **lattice** is a 3-dimensional array of regularly spaced points coinciding with the atom or molecule positions in a crystal.

It also occurs in computational physics, in which a **lattice** is an *n*-dimensional geometrical structure of *sites*, connected by *bonds*, which represent positions which may be occupied by atoms, molecules, electrons, spins, etc. For an article dealing with the formal representation of such structures see Lattice Geometries. Quite general lattice models are used in physics.

## Contents

- 1 Symmetry considerations and examples
- 2 Dividing space according to a lattice
- 3 Lattice points in convex sets
- 4 Computing with lattices
- 5 Lattices in two dimensions: detailed discussion
- 6 Lattices in three dimensions
- 7 Lattices in complex space
- 8 In Lie groups
- 9 Lattices over general vector-spaces
- 10 See also

## Symmetry considerations and examples

A lattice is the symmetry group of discrete translational symmetry in *n* directions. A pattern with this lattice of translational symmetry cannot have more, but may have less symmetry than the lattice itself.

A lattice in the sense of a 3-dimensional array of regularly spaced points coinciding with e.g. the atom or molecule positions in a crystal, or more generally, the orbit of a group action under translational symmetry, is a translate of the translation lattice: a coset, which need not contain the origin, and therefore need not be a lattice in the previous sense.

A simple example of a lattice in **R**^{n} is the subgroup **Z**^{n}. A more complicated example is the Leech lattice, which is a lattice in **R**^{24}. The period lattice in **R**^{2} is central to the study of elliptic functions, developed in nineteenth century mathematics; it generalises to higher dimensions in the theory of abelian functions.

## Dividing space according to a lattice

A typical lattice Λ in **R**^{n} thus has the form

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Lambda = \left\{ \sum_{i=1}^n a_i v_i \; | \; a_i \in\Bbb{Z} \right\} }**

where {*v*_{1}, ..., *v*_{n}} is a basis for **R**^{n}. Different bases can generate the same lattice, but the absolute value of the determinant of the vectors *v*_{i} is uniquely determined by Λ, and is denoted by d(Λ).
If one thinks of a lattice as dividing the whole of **R**^{n} into equal polyhedra (copies of an *n*-dimensional parallelepiped, known as the *fundamental region* of the lattice), then d(Λ) is equal to the *n*-dimensional volume of this polyhedron. This is why d(Λ) is sometimes called the *covolume* of the lattice.

## Lattice points in convex sets

Minkowski's theorem relates the number d(Λ) and the volume of a symmetric convex set *S* to the number of lattice points contained in *S*. The number of lattice points contained in a polytope all of whose vertices are elements of the lattice is described by the polytope's Ehrhart polynomial. Formulas for some of the coefficients of this polynomial involve d(Λ) as well.

## Computing with lattices

**Lattice basis reduction** is the problem of finding a short lattice basis. The Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovász lattice reduction algorithm (LLL) finds a short lattice basis in polynomial time; it has found numerous applications, particularly in public-key cryptography.

## Lattices in two dimensions: detailed discussion

There are five 2D lattice types. Below the wallpaper group of the lattice is given in parentheses; note that a pattern with this lattice of translational symmetry cannot have more, but may have less symmetry than the lattice itself. If the symmetry group of a pattern contains an *n*-fold rotation then the lattice has *n*-fold symmetry for even *n* and 2*n*-fold for odd *n*.

- a
**rhombic lattice**, also called**centered rectangular lattice**or**isosceles triangular lattice**(cmm), with evenly spaced rows of evenly spaced points, with the rows alternatingly shifted one half spacing (symmetrically staggered rows); special cases are:- a
**hexagonal lattice**or**equilateral triangular lattice**(p6m) - a square lattice (see below, and turn 45°)

- a

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

- a
**rectangular lattice**, also called**primitive rectangular lattice**(pmm), with as special case a**square lattice**(p4m):

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

- more generally, a
**parallelogrammic lattice**, also called**oblique lattice**(p2)(with asymmetrically staggered rows):

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

For the classification of a given lattice, start with one point and take a nearest second point. For the third point, not on the same line, consider its distances to both points. Among the points for which the smaller of these two distances is least, choose a point for which the larger of the two is least. (Not logically equivalent but in the case of lattices giving the same result is just "Choose a point for which the larger of the two is least".)

The five cases correspond to the triangle being equilateral, right isosceles, right, isosceles, and scalene. In a rhombic lattice, the shortest distance may either be a diagonal or a side of the rhombus, i.e., the line segment connecting the first two points may or may not be one of the equal sides of the isosceles triangle. This depends on the smaller angle of the rhombus being less than 60° or between 60° and 90°.

If the vectors **a** and **b** generate the lattice, instead of **a** and **b** we can also take **a** and **a**-**b**, etc. In general in 2D, we can take p**a** + q**b** and r**a** + s**b** for integers p, q, r, and s such that ps-qr is 1 or -1. This ensures that **a** and **b** themselves are integer linear combinations of the other two vectors. If not, not all translations are possible with the other pair. Each pair **a**, **b** defines a parallelogram, all with the same area, the magnitude of the cross product. One parallelogram fully defines the whole object. Without further symmetry, this parallelogram is a fundamental domain.

The vectors **a** and **b** can be represented by complex numbers. Up to size and orientation, a pair can be represented by their quotient. Expressed geometrically: if two lattice points are 0 and 1, we consider the position of a third lattice point. Equivalence in the sense of generating the same lattice is represented by the modular group: **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle T: z\mapsto z+1}**
represents choosing a different third point in the same grid, **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle S: z\mapsto -1/z}**
represents choosing a different side of the triangle as reference side 0-1, which in general implies changing the scaling of the lattice, and rotating it. Each "curved triangle" in the image contains for each 2D lattice shape one complex number, the grey area is a canonical representation, corresponding to the classification above, with 0 and 1 two lattice points that are closest to each other; duplication is avoided by including only half of the boundary. The rhombic lattices are represented by the points on its boundary, with the hexagonal lattice as vertex, and *i* for the square lattice. The rectangular lattices are at the imaginary axis, and the remaining area represents the parallelogrammetic lattices, with the mirror image of a parallelogram represented by the mirror image in the imaginary axis.

## Lattices in three dimensions

The 14 lattice types in 3D are called **Bravais lattices**. They are characterized by their space group. 3D patterns with translational symmetry of a particular type cannot have more, but may have less symmetry than the lattice itself.

## Lattices in complex space

A lattice in **C**^{n} is a discrete subgroup of **C**^{n} which spans the 2*n*-dimensional real vector space **C**^{n}.
For example, the Gaussian integers form a lattice in **C**.

Every lattice in **R**^{n} is a free abelian group of rank *n*; every lattice in **C**^{n} is a free abelian group of rank 2*n*.

## In Lie groups

More generally, a **lattice** Γ in a Lie group *G* is a discrete subgroup, such that *G*/Γ is of finite measure, for the measure on it inherited from Haar measure on *G* (left-invariant, or right-invariant - the definition is independent of that choice). That will certainly be the case when *G*/Γ is compact, but that sufficient condition is not necessary, as is shown by the case of the modular group in *SL*_{2}(**R**), which is a lattice but where the quotient isn't compact (it has *cusps*). There are general results stating the existence of lattices in Lie groups.

A lattice is said to be **uniform** or **cocompact** if *G*/Γ is compact; otherwise the lattice is called **non-uniform**.

## Lattices over general vector-spaces

Whilst we normally consider **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathbb{Z}}**
lattices in **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathbb{R}^n}**
this concept can be generalised to any finite dimensional vector space over any field. This can be done as follows:

Let **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle K}**
be a field, let **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle V}**
be an **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle n}**
-dimensional **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle K}**
-vector space, let **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle B = \{\mathbf{v}_1,\ldots, \mathbf{v}_n\}}**
be a **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle K}**
-basis for **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle V}**
and let **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle R}**
be a ring contained within **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle R}**
lattice **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{L}}**
in **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle V}**
generated by **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle B}**
is given by:

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{L} = \left\{\sum_{i=1}^{n} a_i \mathbf{v}_i \quad | \quad a_i \in R, \mathbf{v}_i \in B \right\} }**

Different bases **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle B}**
will in general generate different lattices. However, if the transition matrix **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle T}**
between the bases is in **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle GL_n(R)}**
- the general linear group of R (in simple terms this means that all the entries of **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle T}**
are in **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle R}**
and all the entries of **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle T^{-1}}**
are in **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle T}**
is in **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle R^{*}}**
- the unit group of elements in

Important cases occur in number theory with *K* a p-adic field and *R* the p-adic integers.

## See also

de:Gitter (Mathematik) fr:Réseau (groupe) pl:Krata (algebra)