- 1651 - The Battle of Beresteczko ends with a Polish victory.
- 1805 - The U.S. Congress organizes Michigan Territory.
- 1864 - U.S. President Abraham Lincoln grants Yosemite Valley to California for "public use, resort and recreation."
- 1883 - The first appearance of The Black Arrow by Robert Louis Stevenson in Young Folks; A Boys' and Girls' Paper of Instructive and Entertaining Literature
- 1905 - Albert Einstein publishes the article "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", where he introduces special relativity.
- 1908 - The Tunguska impact event occurs in Siberia
- 1934 - The Night of the Long Knives, Adolf Hitler's violent purge of his political rivals in Germany, takes place.
- 1935 - The Senegalese Socialist Party holds its first congress.
- 1936 - Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell published.
- 1956 - A TWA Super Constellation and a United Airlines DC-7 collide above the Grand Canyon in Arizona, United States, killing 128.
- 1960 - Congo gains independence from Belgium.
- 1971 - The crew of the Soviet Soyuz 11 spacecraft are killed when their air supply escapes through faulty valve.
- 1977 - Virginia Wade won the Ladies Singles title at Wimbledon, the last British champion at the All England Club.
- 1978 - Willie McCovey becomes the 12th member of the 500 home run club with a home run at Fulton County Stadium in Atlanta, Georgia.
- 1990 - East and West Germany merge their economies.
- 1997 - China resumes sovereignty over the city-state of Hong Kong, ending 156 years of British colonial rule.
- 2002 - Brazil defeats Germany 2-0 in Yokohama, Japan, to earn a record fifth title in the 17th Football World Cup.
- 2005 - Spain legalizes same-sex marriage.
1286 to 1899
- 1286 - John de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey, English politician (d. 1347)
- 1470 - King Charles VIII of France (d. 1498)
- 1503 - John Frederick, Elector of Saxony (d. 1554)
- 1641 - Meinhardt Schomberg, 3rd Duke of Schomberg, Irish general (d. 1719)
- 1685 - John Gay, English writer (d. 1732)
- 1685 - Dominikus Zimmermann, architect (d. 1766)
- 1717 - Johann Stamitz, Czech-born composer (d. 1757)
- 1755 - Paul François Jean Nicolas Barras, French politician (d. 1829)
- 1789 - Horace Vernet, French painter and graphic artist (d. 1863)
- 1807 - Friedrich Theodor von Vischer, German narrator, lyricist, and philosopher (d. 1887)
- 1817 - Joseph Dalton Hooker, English botanist (d. 1911)
- 1843 - Ernest Mason Satow, German-born author (d. 1929)
- 1891 - Man Mountain Dean, American professional wrestler (d. 1953)
- 1893 - Walter Ulbricht, German politician (d. 1973)
- 1899 - Madge Bellamy, American actress (d. 1990)
- 1899 - Harry Shields, American jazz clarinetist (d. 1971)
1900 to 1999
- 1908 - Winston Graham, English writer (d. 2003)
- 1911 - Czesław Miłosz, Polish-born writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2004)
- 1912 - Ludwig Bölkow, German aeronautical engineer (d. 2003)
- 1917 - Susan Hayward, American actress (d. 1975)
- 1917 - Lena Horne, American actress and singer
- 1926 - Paul Berg, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
- 1934 - Harry Blackstone Jr., American magician (d. 1997)
- 1936 - Nancy Dussault, American actress
- 1939 - José Emilio Pacheco, Mexican poet and writer
- 1943 - Florence Ballard, American singer (The Supremes) (d. 1976)
- 1944 - Raymond Moody, parapsychologist
- 1954 - Pierre Charles, Prime Minister of Dominica (d. 2004)
- 1958 - Esa-Pekka Salonen, Finnish conductor and composer
- 1959 - Vincent D'Onofrio, American actor
- 1959 - Brendan Perry, English musician (Dead Can Dance)
- 1962 - Tony Fernandez, baseball player
- 1963 - Yngwie J. Malmsteen, Swedish guitarist
- 1965 - Mitch Richmond, American basketball player
- 1966 - Mike Tyson, American boxer
- 1968 - Philip Anselmo, American musician
- 1973 - Chan Ho Park, Korean Major League Baseball player
- 1975 - Ralf Schumacher, German race car driver
- 1984 - Fantasia Barrino, American singer
- 1985 - Michael Phelps, American swimmer
- 1985 - Fabiana Vallejos, Argentine footballer
- 1987 - Gonçalo Correia, Portuguese Superhero
1181 to 1899
- 1181 - Hugh de Kevelioc, 3rd Earl of Chester English politician (b. 1147)
- 1364 - Arnost of Pardubice, Archbishop of Prague (b. 1297)
- 1538 - Charles of Egmond, Duke of Guelders (b. 1467)
- 1579 - Mehmed Pasha Sokolović, Turkish Janissary
- 1597 - Willem Barents, Dutch explorer
- 1607 - Caesar Baronius, Italian cardinal and historian (b. 1538)
- 1660 - William Oughtred, English mathematician (b. 1575)
- 1666 - Alexander Brome, English poet (b. 1620)
- 1670 - Henrietta Anne Stuart, Princess of England, Scotland, and Ireland (b. 1644)
- 1709 - Edward Llwyd, Welsh scientist (b. 1660)
- 1785 - James Oglethorpe, English general and founder of the state of Georgia (b. 1696)
- 1882 - Charles J. Guiteau, American assassin of President James A. Garfield (b. 1841)
- 1890 - Samuel Parkman Tuckerman, American composer (b. 1819)
1900 to 1999
- 1919 - John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1842)
- 1934 - Ernst Röhm, Nazi official (b. 1887)
- 1953 - Charles William Miller, father of football in Brazil (b. 1874)
- 1959 - José Vasconcelos, Mexican writer and politician (b. 1882)
- 1961 - Lee DeForest, American inventor (b. 1873)
- 1966 - Giuseppe Farina, Italian race car driver (b. 1906)
- 1971 - Crew of Soyuz 11
- 1974 - Vannevar Bush, American engineer and politician (b. 1890)
- 1976 - Firpo Marberry, baseball player (b. 1898)
- 1984 - Lillian Hellman, American playwright (b. 1905)
- 1993 - George "Spanky" McFarland, American actor (b. 1928)
- 1993 - Wong Ka Kui, Hong Kong singer
- 1995 - Gale Gordon, American actor (b. 1906)
- 2001 - Chet Atkins, American guitarist (b. 1924)
- 2003 - Buddy Hackett, American comic (b. 1924)
Holidays and observances
- Independence Day in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
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