Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet
His family hailed from the town of Richelet in Belgium, from which his surname "Lejeune Dirichlet" ("le jeune de Richelet" = "the young chap from Richelet") was derived, and that was where his grandfather lived.
Dirichlet was born in Düren, where his father was the postmaster. He was educated in Germany, and then France, where he learnt from many of the most renowned mathematicians of the day. His first paper was on Fermat's last theorem. This was a famous conjecture (now proven) that stated that for n > 2, the equation xn + yn = zn has no integer solutions, apart from the trivial ones in which x, y, or z is zero. He produced a partial proof for the case n = 5, which was completed by Adrien-Marie Legendre, who was one of the referees. Dirichlet also completed his own proof almost at the same time; he later also produced a full proof for the case n = 14.
Ferdinand Eisenstein, Leopold Kronecker, and Rudolf Lipschitz were his students. After his death, Dirichlet's lectures and other results in number theory were collected, edited and published by his friend and fellow mathematician Richard Dedekind under the title Vorlesungen über Zahlentheorie (Lectures on Number Theory).
- Dirichlet's theorem (number theory, 1835)
- Dirichlet characters (number theory, 1831)
- Dirichlet convolution (number theory)
- Dirichlet kernel (functional analysis, Fourier series)
- Dirichlet problem
- Dirichlet series
- Dirichlet tessellation
- Dirichlet boundary condition
- Dirichlet function
- Dirichlet distribution
- Pigeonhole principle
- Dirichlet brane (D-brane)
- Dirichlet's test for convergence
- O'Connor, John J., and Edmund F. Robertson. "Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet". MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
- Dirichlet, Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune, Vorlesungen über Zahlentheorie. Braunschweig, 1863. "Number Theory for the Millennium".
- Biography of Dirichlet found at Fermat's Last Theorem Blog
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