# Irreducible polynomial

In mathematics, the adjective **irreducible** means that
an object cannot be expressed as a product of at least two
non-trivial factors in a given ring. See also factorization.

For any field *F*, the ring
of polynomials with coefficients in
*F* is denoted by **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle F[x]}**
. A polynomial
**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p(x)}**
in **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle F[x]}**
is called
**irreducible over Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle F}
**, if it is non-constant and cannot be
represented as the product of two or more non-constant
polynomials from

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle F[x]}**.

This definition depends on the field *F*. Some simple
examples will be discussed below.

Galois theory studies the relationship between a field, its Galois group, and its irreducible polynomials in depth. Interesting and non-trivial applications can be found in the study of finite fields.

It is helpful to compare irreducible polynomials to prime numbers: prime numbers (together with the corresponding negative numbers of equal modulus) are the irreducible integers. They exhibit many of the general properties of the concept 'irreducibility' that equally apply to irreducible polynomials, such as the essentially unique factorization into prime or irreducible factors:

Every polynomial **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p(x)}**
in *F*.
This factorization is unique up to permutation of the
factors and the multiplication of constants from *F* to the
factors.

## Simple examples

The following three polynomials demonstrate some elementary properties of reducible and irreducible polynomials:

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p_1(x)=x^2-4\,=(x-2)(x+2)}**,**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p_2(x)=x^2-2\,=(x-\sqrt{2})(x+\sqrt{2})}**,**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p_3(x)=x^2+1\,=(x-i)(x+i)}**.

Over the field **Q** of rational numbers,
the first polynomial **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p_1(x)}**
is reducible,
but the other two polynomials are irreducible.

Over the field **R** of real numbers,
the two polynomials **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p_1(x)}**
and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p_2(x)}**
are reducible, but **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p_3(x)}**
is still irreducible.

Over the field **C** of complex numbers, all
three polynomials are reducible.

In fact over **C**, every non-constant polynomial can be
factored into linear factors

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p(z)=a_n (z-z_1)(z-z_2)\cdots(z-z_n)}**

where **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle a_n}**
is the leading coefficient of the polynomial
and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle z_1,\ldots,z_n}**
are the zeros of **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p(z)}**
.
Hence, all irreducible polynomials are of degree 1.
This is the Fundamental theorem of algebra.

Note: The existence of an essentially *unique* factorization
**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p_3(x)=x^2+1=(x-i)(x+i)}**
of **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p_3(x)}**
into factors that do *not* belong to
**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle Q[x]}**
implies that this polynomial is irreducible
over **Q**:
there cannot be another factorization.

These examples demonstrate the relationship between the zeros of a polynomial (solutions of an algebraic equation) and the factorization of the polynomial into linear factors.

The existence of irreducible polynomials of degree greater than one (without zeros in the original field) historically motivated the extension of that original number field so that even these polynomials can be reduced into linear factors: from rational numbers to real numbers and further to complex numbers.

For algebraic purposes, the extension from rational numbers to
real numbers is often too 'radical':
It introduces transcendental numbers (that are not the solutions of
algebraic equations with rational coefficients). These numbers are not
needed for the algebraic purpose of factorizing polynomials (but they
are necessary for the use of real numbers in analysis). Thus,
there is a purely algebraic process to extend
a given field *F* with a given polynomial **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p(x)}**
to a
larger field where this polynomial

### Generalization

If *R* is an integral domain, an element *f* of *R* which is neither zero nor a unit is called **irreducible** if there are no non-units *g* and *h* with *f* = *gh*. One can show that every prime element is irreducible; the converse is not true in general but holds in unique factorization domains. The polynomial ring *F*[*x*] over a field *F* is a unique factorization domain.

## See also

de:irreduzibles Polynom fr:Factorisation des polynômes he:פולינום אי פריק