Information security

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Information security deals with several different "trust" aspects of information. Another common term is information assurance. Information security is not confined to computer systems, nor to information in an electronic or machine-readable form. It applies to all aspects of safeguarding or protecting information or data, in whatever form.

The U.S. National Information Systems Security Glossary defines Information systems security (INFOSEC) as:

the protection of information systems against unauthorized access to or modification of information, whether in storage, processing or transit, and against the denial of service to authorized users or the provision of service to unauthorized users, including those measures necessary to detect, document, and counter such threats.

Most definitions of information security tend to focus, sometimes exclusively, on specific usages and, or, particular media; e.g., "protect electronic data from unauthorized use". In fact it is a common misconception, or misunderstanding, that information security is synonymous with computer security—in any of its guises: computer and network security, information technology (IT) security, information systems security, information and communications technology (ICT) security. Each of these has a different emphasis, but the common concern is the security of information in some form (electronic in these cases): hence, all are subsets of information security. Conversely, information security covers not just information but all infrastructures that facilitate its use—processes, systems, services, technology, etc., including computers, voice and data networks, etc.

It is an important point that information security is, inherently and necessarily, neither hermetic nor watertight nor perfectible. No one can ever eradicate all risk of improper or capricious use of any information. The level of information security sought in any particular situation should be commensurate with the value of the information and the loss, financial or otherwise, that might accrue from improper use—disclosure, degradation, denial, or whatever. Bruce Schneier makes this point in Secrets and Lies: information security is about risk management.

Three widely accepted elements (aims, principles, qualities, characteristics, attributes ...) of information security are:

These can be remembered by the mnemonic “CIA”, and is often referred to as the CIA triad [1].

A simple way to express this is "the right information to the right people at the right time".

A further, generally accepted element is:

Historically, up to about 1990, confidentiality was the most important element of information security, followed by integrity, and then availability. By 2001, changing use and expectation patterns had moved availability to the top of most versions of this priority list. The first goal of modern information security has, in effect, become to ensure that systems are predictably dependable in the face of all sorts of malice, and particularly in the face of denial of service attacks.

NIST Special Publication 800-33 Underlying Technical Models for Information Technology Security added assurance as essential. "Without it the other objectives are not met." Assurance is the basis for confidence that the security measures, both technical and operational, work as intended to protect the system and the information in processes and that the other four security objectives (integrity, availability, confidentiality, and accountability) have been adequately met by a specific implementation.

Some other facets of information security are:

Cryptography and Cryptanalysis are important tools in assuring confidentiality (in transmission or storage of information), integrity (no change can be made undetectably), and source identification (the sender can be identified and all other than that sender can be excluded). Always assuming, necessarily, that the key(s) involved have not been misused or compromised, and that the crypto systems employed have been well chosen and properly used.

External links

See also

See Category:Computer security for a list of all computing and information-security related articles.

de:Informationssicherheit he:אבטחת מערכות מידע nl:Informatiebeveiliging pt:Segurança da informação ru:Информационная безопасность th:การรักษาความปลอดภัยทางข้อมูล zh:信息安全