Indiana Jones

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Indiana Jones is a fictional bullwhip-toting archaeologist with an overdeveloped ophidiophobia (fear of snakes) played by Harrison Ford. He appeared in a series of films by George Lucas and Steven Spielberg in the 1980s. Younger versions of the character were also played by River Phoenix in the third film and by Sean Patrick Flanery and Corey Carrier on television. An older version (93) of Jones was played by George Hall.

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Biography

File:Indiana Jones 2.jpg
When not adventuring, Jones is a respectable professor

Indiana Jones was born Henry Jones, Jr. to Scottish-born Professor of Medieval literature Dr. Henry Jones Sr. (played by Lloyd Owen in the TV Series and by Sean Connery in the films) and his wife Anna on July 1, 1899, in Princeton, New Jersey. "Junior" accompanied his father on his travels throughout Europe, where he learned to speak, read, and write 27 languages, including French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Swedish, Greek, Arabic, Turkish, Vietnamese, Swahili, Latin and Chinese, as well as some Hindi, apart from English. Although his father called him "Junior," Henry Jr. adopted the name of his beloved dog Indiana for himself, insisting he be referred to as Indiana Jones. It is not known for sure when he first did this, except that he was referred to as Indiana during childhood by his peers.

In 1912, Indy was living in Utah and was a member of the Boy Scouts. It was here, while attempting to secure the Cross of Coronado from thieves, Indy first learned to use the bullwhip and received his trademark fedora. This was also the time when he first developed his aversion to snakes.

His father wanted Indiana to go to Princeton University. To escape this, he ran away from home by train. He ended up in Mexico and was kidnapped by Mexican revolutionaries. He joined this army of revolutionaries, playing a part in the Mexican Revolution in 1916, under Pancho Villa. It is here that he also met his friend Remy, a Belgian. With Remy, he left Mexico and eventually made his way to Africa at the beginning of World War I.

He and Remy intended to join the Belgian Army, where Jones was commissioned as a lieutenant. Jones' inability to read maps properly caused him to lose his unit, and he instead fought along side a team of old men under the British Army. Among missions (depicted in the television series), the team destroyed a giant cannon mounted on a train, and they kidnapped the (real-life) German military genius Paul Erich von Lettow-Vorbeck in a balloon, but they were forced to release him.

Eventually Jones joined the Belgian army in Europe with Remy, in 1916 and participated in the Western Front. He was taken prisoner by the Germans, escaped, encountered Mata Hari, worked as an intelligence officer, took ill, and was treated by Albert Schweitzer. Jones vied with Ernest Hemingway for the affections of a young nurse, and Jones worked as a translator for the Treaty of Versailles, and he saw the war come to its conclusion but lay down the groundwork for a second conflict.

Sometime after the war, Jones returned to the United States, where he studied archaeology at the University of Chicago under Professor Abner Ravenwood. At the same time, he became romantically involved with the Professor's daughter Marion.

Dr. Jones abruptly left the Ravenwoods in 1926 and did not contact them for 10 years. He divided his time between teaching and archaeological expeditions, including a journey to China and India in 1935 where he faced the gangster Lao Che and the followers of the cult of Kali (Temple of Doom). In 1936, he was contacted by the United States government to retrieve the Ark of the Covenant before the Nazis (Raiders of the Lost Ark). He continued to take on infrequent missions for the government over the ensuing years. In 1938, Indy rescued his father from the Nazis and became embroiled in the search for the Holy Grail (Last Crusade).

When last seen in 1993, Jones was living in New York City with his daughter and her family. Sporting an eyepatch and cane, he was stopping anyone within earshot to regale them with tales of his exploits. He seems remarkably spry for a man in his 90s—whether that is because of his drinking from the Grail is unknown. It is yet to be chronicled as to what adventure led Indy to wear an eyepatch.

Appearances

Since his introduction in 1981's Raiders of the Lost Ark, the character of Indiana Jones has become a cultural icon for adventure. His popularity has allowed him to make appearances in three more feature films, a three-season TV series, dozens of novels, comic books, and video games, and even had his own amusement park ride.

The television series, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, aired from 1992 to 1996, with the 17-year-old Indy played by Sean Patrick Flanery, 93-year-old Indy by George Hall, and 10-year-old Indy by Corey Carrier. This inspired a number of made-for-TV and made-for-video movies featuring Flanery as young Indy. One of the last Young Indiana Jones TV movies featured a cameo appearance by Harrison Ford, reprising the role of Indy as a man in his 50s.

The popular trilogy of theatrical films: Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, were made from 1981-1989, created by George Lucas and Directed by Steven Spielberg. The series starred Harrison Ford as Jones. The upcoming fourth Indiana Jones movie, once again to star Harrison Ford, has been in the planning stages for several years; it is in pre-production and is not expected to be released until February 2007 at the earliest. Jim Ward, Vice President of Lucasfilm, has said in a recent press conference that a new Indiana Jones video game is expected that same year, around the time of the movie.

The TV Films:

  • Chapter 1: My First Adventure
  • Chapter 2: Passion for Life
  • Chapter 3: The Perils of Cupid
  • Chapter 4: Travels with Father
  • Chapter 5: Journey of Radiance
  • Chapter 6: Spring Break Adventure
  • Chapter 7: Love's Sweet Song
  • Chapter 8: Trenches of Hell
  • Chapter 9: Demons of Deception
  • Chapter 10: Phantom Train of Doom
  • Chapter 11: Oganga, the Giver and Taker of Life
  • Chapter 12: Attack of the Hawkmen
  • Chapter 13: Adventures in the Secret Service
  • Chapter 14: Espionage Escapades
  • Chapter 15: Daredevils of the Desert
  • Chapter 16: Tales of Innocence
  • Chapter 17: Masks of Evil
  • Chapter 18: Treasure of the Peacock's Eye
  • Chapter 19: Winds of Change
  • Chapter 20: Mystery of the Blues
  • Chapter 21: Scandal of 1920
  • Chapter 22: Hollywood Follies

The Theatrical Films:

  • Chapter 23: The Temple of Doom (1984)
  • Chapter 24: Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)
  • Chapter 25: The Last Crusade (1989)
  • Chapter 26: Indiana Jones 4 (2007) (categorized as "in production")
  • Chapter 27: (unproduced) Originally, George Lucas had signed a deal with Paramount Pictures for four theatrical sequels to Raiders of the Lost Ark. After the first three, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Lucas announced he was finished with the theatrical films, leaving two of his promised sequels unmade. He now has announced his work on the third sequel, Indiana Jones IV. He now denies plans for a fourth sequel, claiming he never intended to do beyond three, but that the fourth film was "a brilliant idea he had." In saying he had a deal for four sequels, one could also speculate that he might not have counted The Temple of Doom as a sequel, and instead a prequel, which it was. This would leave room open for yet another sequel that is yet to be produced.
  • Chapter 28: (unproduced) Based on the fact that The Temple of Doom could be counted as a prequel, rather than a sequel.

The Novels:

Apart from Novel adaptations of the movies, and several Young Indiana jones episodes, there are also a series of original paperback novels about the adventures of Indiana Jones other than those in the films, and another series of novels about Young Indiana Jones for younger readers. In Germany, there was a series of adult novels by author Wolfgang Hohlbein, and in France a Young Indiana Jones series by Joseph Jacobs and Richard Beugne. Sadly these are only available in German and French respectively.

Young Indiana Jones Novels by Random House

  • Young Indiana Jones' Titanic Adventure - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones And The Pirates Loot - by J. N. Fox
  • Young Indiana Jones & The Lost Gold of Durango - by Megan Stine And H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones & The Plantation Treasure - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones & The Tomb of Terror - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones & The Princess of Peril - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones & The Ghostly Riders - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones & The Circle of Death - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones & The Journey to the Underworld - by Megan Stine And H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones & The Curse of the Ruby Cross - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones & The Gypsy Revenge - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones & The Secret City - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones & The Mountain of Fire - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones & The Face of the Dragon - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones & The Eye of the Tiger - by William McCay

Young Indiana Jones Novels by Ballantine Books

  • The Mata Hari Affair - by James Luceno

Indiana Jones Adult Novels by Bantam Books

  • Indiana Jones & The Peril at Delphi - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones & The Unicorn's Legacy - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones & The Dance of the Giants - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones & The Seven Veils - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones & The Genesis Deluge - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones & The Interior World - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones & The Sky Pirates - by Martin Caidin
  • Indiana Jones & The White Witch - by Martin Caidin
  • Indiana Jones & The Philosopher's Stone - by Max McCoy
  • Indiana Jones & The Dinosaur Eggs - by Max McCoy
  • Indiana Jones & The Hollow Earth - by Max McCoy
  • Indiana Jones & The Secret of the Sphinx - by Max McCoy

German Novels by Goldmann Verlag

  • Indiana Jones & The Feathered Snake - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones & The Longship of the Gods - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones & The Avalon Inheritance - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones & The Labyrinth of Horus - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones & Genghis Khan’s Sword - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones & El Dorado’s Gold - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones & The Lost People - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones & The Secret of Easter Island - by Wolfgang Hohlbein

Find Your Fate Adventure Books by Ballantine Books

  • Indiana Jones and the Curse of Horror Island - by R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Giants of the Silver Tower - by R. L. Stein
  • Indiana Jones and the Cult of the Mummy’s Crypt - by R. L. Stein
  • Indiana Jones and the Cup of the Vampire - by Andrew Helfer
  • Indiana Jones and the Legion of Death - by Richard Wenk
  • Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Fates - by Richard Wenk
  • Indiana Jones and the Dragon of Vengeance - by Megan Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Lost Treasure of Sheba - by Rose Estes
  • Indiana Jones and the Gold of Genghis Khan - by Ellen Weiss
  • Indiana Jones and the Ape Slaves of Howling Island - by R. L. Stine

The Comics:

There was a comic book published by Marvel Comics in the early 1980s featuring the talents of John Byrne among others. Later Dark Horse Comics produced a number of Indiana Jones Comics. Indy also had a cameo in a Star Wars story in an issue of the Star Wars Tales comic books.

Dark Horse Comics Stories

  • Indiana Jones & The Shrine of the Sea Devil
  • Indiana Jones & The Arms of Gold
  • Indiana Jones: Thunder in the Orient
  • Indiana Jones & The Fate of Atlantis
  • Indiana Jones & The Sargasso Pirates
  • Indiana Jones & The Dance of Death
  • Indiana Jones & The Golden Fleece
  • Indiana Jones & The Spear of Destiny
  • Indiana Jones & The Iron Phoenix

Marvel Comics The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones Stories

  • Ikons of Ikammanen
  • The Devil's Cradle
  • Gateway to Infinity
  • Club Nightmare
  • Africa Screams
  • The Gold Goddess
  • The Fourth Nail
  • Deadly Rock
  • Demons
  • The Sea Butchers
  • The Search for Abner Ravenwood
  • The Cuban Connection
  • Beyond the Lucifer Chamber
  • End Run
  • Dragon by the Tail
  • The Secret of the Deep
  • Revenge of the Ancients
  • Good as Gold
  • Trail of the Golden Guns
  • Tower of Tears
  • Shot by Both Sides
  • Fireworks
  • Big Game
  • Double Play
  • Magic, Murder & The Weather
  • Something’s Gone Wrong Again

The Video Games:

Various video and computer games have also been produced. The games include:

  • Raiders of the Lost Ark (Atari 2600)
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (arcade)
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (Nintendo Entertainment System)
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (C64)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Action Game (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Taito)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Ubi Soft)
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (Nintendo Entertainment System)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo GameBoy)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Master System - European release)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Genesis)
  • Instruments Of Chaos starring Young Indiana Jones (Sega Genesis)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Game Gear)
  • Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures (Super Nintendo Entertainment System)
  • Indiana Jones in: Revenge of The Ancients (PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis (PC, Amiga, Macintosh, C64) (also a comic book of the same name)
  • Indiana Jones and the Lost Kingdom (C64)
  • Indy's Desktop Adventures (PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine (PC, Nintendo 64, Nintendo GameBoy Color)
  • Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb (PC, PlayStation 2, Microsoft XBox)
  • Untitled 2007 game, likely of same title as title of 2007 movie

The Rides:

File:Indiana Jones Stunt Spectacular.jpg
Action on the set of Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular

In 1995, Disneyland opened a ride called Indiana Jones Adventure, based on the franchise and set in the "Temple of the Forbidden Eye"; Tokyo DisneySea has a similar attraction, set in the "Temple of the Crystal Skull". Disney-MGM Studios features a stunt show called "Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular". Also, Disneyland Paris has a rollercoaster called "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Peril".

Actors portraying Jones

Young Indy

  • Corey Carrier (Chapters 1-5) (age 10)
  • River Phoenix (Chapter 25) (age 13)
  • Sean Patrick Flannery (Chapters 6-22) (age 17-?)

Older Indy

  • Harrison Ford (Chapter 20, Chapters 23-26) (age 45?)
  • George Hall (Chapters 1-22) (age 93)

Origins

File:Indiana Jones 1.jpg
Indiana Jones with his famous bull-whip.

Indiana Jones, "Obtainer of Rare Antiquities," is modeled after the strong-jawed heroes of the pulp magazines and matinee serials that Lucas and Spielberg enjoyed in their childhoods, such as the Republic Pictures serials. The two friends first discussed the project while in Hawaii during the time of release of the first Star Wars film. Spielberg told Lucas how he wanted to direct a James Bond film. Lucas responded that he had something better than that.

Spielberg wanted Indiana to be a James Bond-like figure that got into difficult situations and worked his way out. Upon requests by Spielberg and Lucas the costume designer was given the task to make the character have a distinctive recognizable silhouette through the style of the hat (much like Dick Tracy). After examining many hats, the designers chose an urban version of the classic Australian fedora, the Akubra.

Other elements of the outfit were the jacket (still available today from Indyjacket.com [1]) - the bag was a modified World War II gas mask bag, and of course the whip.

Indy's Revolver is a .38/200 calibre Webley Mk IV, but he is also seen with the .45ACP Colt M1911A1, the Webley Mk VI, and the Smith & Wesson New Century (both in .455 Webley calibre) in the movies.

Many people have been called the real-life inspiration of the Indiana Jones character. Probably the most cited person is famous paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews. Another person cited as a possible inspiration is the Italian archaeologist and circus strongman Giovanni Battista Belzoni (1778–1823). Religious archaeologist Vendyl "Texas" Jones claims that he was the inspiration, citing his names (he notes that his first name trimmed becomes Endy — very similar to Indy), but this claim has reportedly been denied by Spielberg. Other candidates include explorer Gene Savoy [2], Yale University historian and explorer Hiram Bingham III and University of Chicago archeologist Robert Braidwood [3]. However, the most likely inspiration was the fictional character Allan Quatermain.

The character was originally named Indiana Smith, but Spielberg disliked the name and Lucas casually suggested "Indiana Jones". The name was thus changed early in the production of Raiders of the Lost Ark. The origin of the name "Indiana" is the same in the real world as in the fiction: It was the name of an Alaskan malamute Lucas had in the 1970s (the same dog was also the inspiration for Chewbacca). His name is also said to be derived from the character "Nevada Smith," played by Steve McQueen in the 1966 film of the same name.

Spielberg also admitted that an important inspiration for the style and atmosphere of the adventures of Indiana Jones were the adventures of the Belgian comic character Tintin by Hergé.

DVD Release

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The 2003 DVD release of Chapters 23-25.

TV Films

The DVDs for Chapters 1-22 are expected to be released sometime in 2007, according to a statement by series producer, Rick McCallum of Lucasfilm. The company has already put in two years of work on creating these DVDs, so as to have bonus features for each movie.

McCallum expects there to be 22 Young Indiana Jones Chronicles DVDs in all, 3 of which have been completed. The discs will include some 66 historical featurettes, now in production. Work has been ongoing for about 18 months on the Young Indy DVDs, with about another 18 months worth of work yet to be done. If all goes well, the plan is to tie the DVD release to the theatrical debut of Indy IV.

Theatrical Films

Chapters 23-25 of the Indiana Jones series (The Temple of Doom, Raiders of the Lost Ark, and The Last Crusade, respectively) were released on DVD as a boxed set of all three films plus a fourth disc of bonus materials.

References

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External links

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