- For other uses of the word Highlander, please see: Highlander
Highlander is a 1986 fantasy movie starring Christopher Lambert, who plays Connor MacLeod, the Highlander of the title. Born in Glenfinnan, in the Scottish Highlands in the 16th century, MacLeod is an Immortal. The original movie spawned three subsequent theatrical releases and a television series of relative success.
As the basic premise, an Immortal cannot die unless decapitated — the original movie made no peremptory reference as to whether this would have to be done by another immortal in order to work; the television show extrapolated on this, by affirming that any decapitation would suffice to kill an Immortal, even if performed by a mortal or as a result of an accident. All Immortals are engaged in an ancient dispute, at the end of which only one Immortal will be left (thus the movie's catch phrase: "There can be only one") and gain "The Prize". The original movie left many details to the imagination, some of them were extrapolated upon by the later movies and tv series: in the original movie, there is no direct reference as to the fact that an Immortal stops aging when he is fatally wounded for the first time and "dies", something that was established only in the tv show; The original movie explicitly says that no one knows exactly what "The Prize" is, although it is established that if an evil Immortal gets it, Humankind would suffer "an eternity of darkness" — at the end of the original movie, when Connor McLeod wins the Prize (according to that storyline), it is hinted that the prize may consist of infinite knowledge.
Among the clearly established facts, Immortals cannot have children and they cannot fight on "holy ground" (the concept of which was not clearly established by the original movie, but later agreed to be any place held holy by any human creed). Amidst the rules that were expanded or retconned by the tv show and the other movies are: the nature of "The Quickening", which in the original movie appears to be the "proximity premonition" between Immortals and a supernatural connection that each Immortal has to the very world, but is later said to be a transference of power and knowledge from a defeated Immortal to the victor of a battle (although this is indicated in the original movie, where the phenomenon resembles closely a transference of power of some kind); Another key change made after the original movie was the existence of female Immortals: the original movie makes no reference to it, but it only shows male Immortals, the idea that women could also be Immortals came from the television series; Yet another aspect of the rules that was never touched originally, but was elaborated by the tv show is the "no interference" rule, according to which once two immortals engage in mortal combat, no other Immortal may interfere in it at any point.
The main difference is that the original movie depicts the end of the battle between the Immortals (later dubbed "The Game"), showing Connor McLeod as the last remaining Immortal and winner of The Prize. Later movies and the tv show proposed a retcon according to which the 1985 final battle between McLeod and the Kurgan in New York did take place, but it would not have been the actual final battle; The Gathering had not happened (or at least, had not concluded) and The Game continues. In the original movie, The Gathering (described by Ramirez as follows: "when only a few of us are left, we will feel an irresistible pull towards a far away land, to fight for The Prize") had taken place in 1985, when about five Immortals were left alive, in New York City, which can be considered to have been the "distant land", since the east coast of the American continent would have been rather distant from the rest of the world up until relatively recent times.
The Highlander films and the television series that was spun off from it have attracted a devoted following and led to the creation of a great deal of fan fiction, much of it available on the Internet.
Typical of the series is the use of flashbacks from previous events in the Highlander's long life.
The phrase "There can be only one!" is used frequently in promoting the movies, resulting in "highlander" also being a generic phrase for computer programming solutions that involve exclusive access to a resource.
Highlander : There Can Be Only One
The first film of the series, originally called "Highlander: There Can Be Only One" was released on March 7, 1986. The film features a number of flashback scenes establishing Connor MacLeod of the Clan MacLeod's early history.
According to them he was born in the year 1518 "in the village of Glenfinnan on the shores of Loch Shiel" (historically this village is better known as the rally point where Bonnie Prince Charlie's troops first concentrated on August 19, 1745 See:Glenfinnan). In 1536 his clan was in conflict with the rival Clan Fraser. Connor had his first battles in the conflict. The Frasers had employed an experienced Immortal only known as The Kurgan (Clancy Brown), and he apparently recognized that Connor was a fellow Immortal, though even Connor had not discovered this yet. The Kurgan managed to mortally wound Connor in battle, but the MacLeods recovered the body before he could decapitate it. The MacLeods mourned Connor, but he revived shortly after his "death." Accusing him of witchcraft, Connor's clansmen tortured him and were about to execute him when his cousin Angus MacLeod (James Cosmo) gave him brief aid. He managed to escape with his life, but left in exile from his clan and birthplace.
Connor eventually settled in Glencoe, Scotland where he married Heather MacDonald (Beatie Edney), his first wife, and received training as a blacksmith from her father. In 1541 he was located by a much older Immortal, who introduced himself as Juan Sanchez Villa-Lobos Ramirez (Sean Connery). Ramirez soon appointed himself Connor's tutor in the situation of being Immortal, their pursuit of the Prize, and the rules of this age-long "Game." He also explained that his own Spanish name was just his current alias. He adopted it while serving as Chief Metallurgist for Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (also King of Spain between 1516-1556). He was originally Egyptian, and his sword was a katana he received in Japan by his father-in-law Masamune. Masamune was the father of Princess Shakiko, Ramirez's third wife, and supposedly a genius ahead of his time in the forging of swords. The novelization of this film gives Ramirez's original name as Tak-Ne, his birth in 896 BC, his first "death" in 851 BC, and his marriage to Shakiko in 593 BC.
Connor's training under Ramirez lasted for about a year. In 1542, the Kurgan managed to locate them both. He arrived at their residence while MacLeod himself was absent. The Kurgan and Ramirez dueled, with the frightened Heather their only spectator. The Kurgan managed to decapitate Ramirez and proceeded to rape Heather, in the belief that he was further humiliating his old enemy (Ramirez) by raping "his woman." Connor soon returned to find his residence in ruins, his mentor deceased, and his wife alive but traumatised, although she never told him about the rape. Connor stayed by his wife's side for the rest of her life, until she died of old age and natural causes in 1590. Dying in Connor's arms, she confided that her only regret was not having his children. Connor had not physically aged in more than fifty years of marriage. After burying Heather and burning their residence, MacLeod started wandering the world. A number of other references in the film connected him to many historical figures and events. The movie hints that his experiences over time left him a bitter, cynical man.
The action then shifts to New York, circa 1985, where the few surviving Immortals are drawn for "The Gathering," a final series of confrontations to determine the victor of "The Prize." Eventually, the last two surviving are Connor, under the alias of Russell Edwin Nash; and the Kurgan, under the alias of Victor Kruger. Meanwhile, the spike in murders by decapitation has drawn the attention of the police, who suspect Connor as the sole person responsible. Among the investigators of the case is police forensic scientist Brenda Wyatt (Roxanne Hart). Her investigation gets her closer to Connor, and they eventually fall in love with each other. This does not escape the attention of the Kurgan, who abducts her to get Connor to finally stand and fight him, instead of avoiding the final battle. Connor battles the Kurgan, defeats him, and apparently wins The Prize. Connor is left satisfied that the age-long Game is finally over. He proceeds in marrying Brenda and pursuing a new life. (It should be noted that subsequent movies and series have retconned the battle with the Kurgan into a personal victory for Connor instead of the end of "The Game.")
The film was directed by Russell Mulcahy and scripted by Peter Bellwood, Larry Ferguson and Gregory Widen. It remains arguably the best-known film of the Highlander series, and the one better-received by the public. It is noted for its introduction of the themes and concepts further explored by the later movies and TV series.
The original movie had a well-regarded sound-track by Queen, most notably containing "Princes of the Universe," which is also used in the Highlander television series title sequence. While an album specifically tied to the Highlander movie was never released, the Queen album "A Kind Of Magic" (a phrase spoken twice in the movie by Connor) featured most of the songs from the film, as well as other music on the same theme. Notably, Queen's version of "New York, New York" (playing while the Kurgan drives Brenda through New York) was never released by Queen. All the Queen songs in Highlander were purposely written for the movie, except the song "Hammer To Fall" which had been previously released on their album The Works in 1984. Queen saw an early screening of Highlander, and decided to do the film's soundtrack. Queen wrote many of the songs specifically to match the mood of the scenes when the songs were played.
Highlander II: The Quickening
The film's opening scene occurs on August, 1999. News broadcasts explain that the ozone layer will be completely gone in a matter of months, and that the ozone hole has been significantly expanded and covers most of planet Earth. In Africa millions have died, due to the effects the unfiltered sunlight has had on them. Among them is Connor's wife, who makes him promise that he will work in solving the problem presented. (In the original release of the film, this woman is revealed to be Brenda Wyatt, per her tombstone seen in the movie; Highlander III somewhat contradictorily reveals that Brenda died around 1987, with Alex Johnson possibly having died circa 1995.)
In the period following his wife's death, Connor becomes the supervisor of a scientific team attempting to create an artificial shield, which will cover the planet and protect it from the Sun's radiation. The actual head of the team is Dr. Allan Neyman (Allan Rich). In 1999, the team succeeded in its goal, and Earth gained its artificial shield filtering sunlight in place of the ozone layer. MacLeod and Neyman were proud in having apparently saved humanity, and believed they would be remembered for a thousand years. However, the shield has the side-effect of condemning the planet to a state of constant night, and humanity can no longer see the sun, the moon, or the stars.
The film then proceeds to the year 2024. According to a narration by Connor, twenty-five years of darkness have had caused humanity to lose hope and fall into a decline. The Shield has fallen under the control of "Shield Corporation," and its current head David Blake (John C. McGinley), taxing for its services in pursuit of profit. A number of terrorists have emerged trying to take down the Shield. Among them is Louise Marcus (Virginia Madsen), a former employee of the Corporation. Meanwhile, Connor has since begun aging once again ever since his 1985 victory over the Kurgan -- a result of his winning The Prize. He has physically aged into a frail old man, and expects himself to eventually die of natural causes.
Meanwhile, MacLeod has been able to recover his memories from a previous life in his series of reincarnations. A flashback to "Planet Zeist 500 years ago" begins with the last meeting of the members of a rebellion against the rule of General Katana (Michael Ironside). The rebellion's leader, a previous incarnation of Ramirez, chooses "a man of great destiny" from among them, Connor's previous incarnation, to carry out a mission against Katana. At this moment, Katana and his troops attack, and the rebellion is crushed. Katana orders his men to capture "Ramirez" and "MacLeod" alive, and kill the rest of the rebels. The two captives are put on trial by Zeist's priests, who sentence them to be exiled from Zeist and reborn on Earth as Immortals in pursuit of the Prize. Given the choice to grow old and die on Earth or return to Zeist, they choose Earth. Katana is unsatisfied with their decision, but the sentence is executed and the events of the previous film follow. Oddly, both Immortals were born before 1524 on Earth; whether the "500 years ago" message was in error, or their Earth incarnations were somehow born before the death of their Zeist incarnations is left unexplained.
The film then returns to the Earth of 2024. Louise Marcus discovers that the ozone layer has been reformed, and the artificial Shield is no longer needed. The Corporation is aware of this development, but has apparently decided to hide it from the general public in order to maintain its main source of profit. Meanwhile on Zeist, General Katana is still alive. His information seems to indicate that Connor wants to return to Zeist. However, he decides that cannot be allowed to happen and sends his Immortal henchmen Corda (Pete Antico) and Reno (Peter Bucossi) to Earth to kill him in battle.
Louise manages to reach Connor first, and asks for his help in taking down the Shield. To Louise's disappointment, she finds the passionate person she once admired to have grown into "a tired old man." MacLeod explains to Louise that he is dying, and expresses his disapproval of terrorism. Before Connor and Louise can finish their conversation, Corda and Reno locate them and attack. MacLeod soon manages to decapitate them both, and in the process regains his youthful appearance. While he absorbs their energy, Connor summons Ramirez.
In Glencoe, Scotland, the location of his death, Ramirez is apparently revived. He finds himself on a theatrical stage during a performance of William Shakespeare's Hamlet. Meanwhile, in New York Connor has found a new lover in Louise Marcus. He attempts to explain to her the concepts of his Immortality, but she finds them confusing. Elsewhere in New York, General Katana arrives, and proceeds to spread havoc.
Both Ramirez and Katana soon adapt to their new environment. Ramirez's earrings are apparently valuable enough to pay for the new costume he acquires from the "finest and oldest" tailor's shop in Scotland, and for an airplane ticket to New York. On the other hand, Katana finds New York much to his liking. After entertaining himself for a while, Katana manages to locate his old enemy. Their first encounter in centuries proves to be indecisive, though.
Soon enough, Connor is also reached by Ramirez. The latter joins MacLeod and Louise in their plan to take down the Shield. Katana had apparently predicted this, and so forges an uneasy alliance with David Blake. The conflict between the two sets of allies eventually leads to the subsequent deaths of Dr. Allan Neyman (employed by Blake and informant of Connor, killed by his employer as a "traitor"), Ramirez (sacrificing himself to save Connor and Louise), David Blake (killed by Katana while trying to double-cross him), and General Katana (killed by Connor in their final confrontation). MacLeod succeeds in taking down the Shield by using the combined energies of his final Quickening from General Katana. Louise sees the stars for the first time in her life. Then Connor claims his Prize by returning to Zeist with Louise accompanying him (only in the syndicated TV cut of the film...in the theatrical and DVD versions, both remain on Earth).
Set in the early 21st century, this film veers towards science fiction. It was again directed by Russell Mulcahy, and scripted by Peter Bellwood, with other material by Brian Clemens and William Panzer. Upon release, this film was met with harsh criticism by both critics and audiences. Fans of the original film were less than pleased with the concept of Immortals being aliens from Planet Zeist and with the revival of Ramirez, whose dramatic death scene in the previous film was considered among its highlights. This is often viewed as contradicting the original movie.
Apart from being inconsistent with the 1986 original's storyline, audiences found the conflict between the rebellion and General Katana to be too reminiscent of the conflict between the Rebel Alliance and the Galactic Empire featured in Star Wars. Critics and audiences alike pointed out that the characters suffered from a lack of development and motivation, as gratuitous action scenes left little time for it. An example often offered is that no reason was provided for Katana's sudden interest in Connor after apparently losing contact with him for 506 years, and his insistence on killing his old enemy while he could wait for him to die without outside interference. However it should be noted that the film has found a number of fans who found its faults to be a source of amusement and ridicule.
Highlander II's apparent failure has been seen by some as a result of the producers' interference with the work of director Russell Mulcahy, who personally hated the final product so much he walked out of the film's premiere after watching its first 15 minutes. For similiar reasons, Christopher Lambert threatened to walk out of the project when it was nearing fruition, but he didn't due to contract obligation.
Some time later, Mulcahy made a director's cut version known as Highlander II: The Renegade Version. The film was mostly reconstructed with certain scenes removed and others added back in, and the entire sequence of events changed. Obviously, all references to the Immortals being aliens from another planet were eliminated; instead, this cut reveals that the Immortals are from an unspecified, distant past, banished by priests into random locations in the future to keep the Prize from being won in their lifetime (the option to return to the past is an option offered in addition to the mystical Prize of the first film). This version is generally considered a major improvement on the theatrical release, and obtained a far more favourable reception. Nevertheless, the events of both versions were generally ignored by the subsequent films and series.
One joke from fans of the first film is a suggested tagline based on a phrase from the films: "Highlander II: There should have been only one!"
Highlander III: The Sorcerer (Highlander: The Final Dimension)
The film starts with a flashback that occurs sometime after the death of Heather. Events of the flashback can be estimated to occur during the late 16th century or early to middle 17th century. Connor has travelled to Japan to request training from the immortal Japanese sorcerer Nakano (Makoto Iwamatsu, better known as Mako), an acquaintance of Ramirez. Nakano held his residence in a cave of Mount Niri and had gained a reputation as a master of illusion. It should perhaps be noted that the screenplay of this film gives Nakano's first "death" as occurring in 743 BC.
How long this training lasted is left uncertain, but it was never completed. A fellow immortal named Kane (Mario Van Peebles) and apparently an old acquaintance of Nakano, was also interested in mastering the power of illusion. Nakano had reportedly denied him training two centuries ago. Kane had apparently gained in experience and ability since that time. He was making his way across Asia in order to reach Nakano again. He also had two traveling companions with him. These two Mongolian immortals were left unnamed in the film but the novelization named them as Khabul Khan (Jean-Pierre Perusse) and Senghi Khan (Raoul Trujillo).
Kane would supposedly attack and decapitate every other Immortal the trio encountered during their journey. Eventually they passed from China to Japan, and started seeking Niri. Entering a nearby village seeking information, they proceeded to burn it to the ground and massacre its population. Eventually they managed to reach the cave. Kane soon managed to defeat and decapitate Nakano, despite Connor's attempts to prevent this. However the energies released during the battle cause the cave to collapse. Connor managed to escape in time, but Kane and his men were left trapped. They were apparently soon forgotten, and their situation prevented them from participating in the Gathering of 1985.
Another extended flashback describes events in the late 18th century. In 1788/1789 Connor was in France when he made the acquaintance of Sarah Barrington (Deborah Unger), an Englishwoman visiting relatives there. The two soon started to enjoy conversing together and then racing their horses against each other. Eventually they became lovers. But when the French Revolution began, Sarah had to return to England while Connor became involved in its events.
During the revolution Joseph-Ignace Guillotin introduced the guillotine as the main method of capital punishment. Historically the first execution of this kind in France occurred on April 25, 1792. In the context of the film it was effective against both mortals and immortals. At some point Connor was sentenced to this manner of execution, supposedly for treason against King Louis XVI of France. His Immortal friend Pierre Bouchet explained that he was tired of his immortal life, and so offered to die in his place. Connor was falsely reported deceased. Believing her lover dead, Sarah was left grieving. Historically, Louis XVI was deposed on August 10, 1792, and the monarchy officially abolished on September 21, 1792. So it can be supposed that Connor's failed execution occurred between April and August of 1792.
By 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte had managed to establish himself namely as First Consul of France, and effectively as its dictator. The Revolution was over, and Connor apparently left France for England in an attempt to reintroduce himself to Sarah. Connor soon located her. But Sarah still considered him deceased, and was by this point a married woman and mother of a number of children. Connor left without contacting her and returned to his own solitude.
In 1994, Connor was again a widower. In 1987, Brenda, his last wife, was reportedly killed in a car accident after only two years of marriage. Connor survived the accident relatively unharmed. He was left alone to raise their adoptive son John MacLeod (Gabriel Kakon). They had settled in Marrakech, Morocco, and Connor was at peace for the first time in centuries. This peace would prove short-lived, though. In Japan, two archaeologists had started excavating Nakano's cave in order to discover whether the sorcerer's legend was based on fact or not. American Dr. Alexandra "Alex" Johnson (Deborah Unger), apparently a distant descendant of Sarah who greatly resembled her, believed Nakano was a historical figure. Japanese Dr. Fuji Takamura (Daniel Do) -- apparently a great fan of Babe Ruth -- on the other hand, believed Nakano to be a legendary figure.
The film sees MacLeod defeat a wizard with hypnotic abilities. The third movie largely ignores many of the plot inconsistencies introduced by the second film.
Most of the film was shot in Morocco.
First released on September 1 2000, this film was an attempt to merge characters from Highlander I and characters and situations from the Highlander television series. The story begins with a flashback to 16th century Scotland, where we are introduced to Jacob Kell (Bruce Payne), once a friend of Connor MacLeod's (Christopher Lambert).
While attempting to execute Connor Macleod's mother for witchcraft in the village of Glenfinnan, both Kell and his adopted father, a priest named Father Rainey, are seemingly killed by a vengeful Connor. Glenfinnan is set ablaze, as Connor escapes with the corpse of his murdered mother. Jacob Kell was, however, reborn as an Immortal, and has since vowed vengeance against Connor for his foster-father's death. He has spent the last four centuries killing all the people Connor loves, including Rachel Ellenstein, (the war orphan from the first Highlander film). He also has gathered a posse of lesser Immortals, who overpower other Immortals and allow Kell to take their heads. At the start of the film, Kell has over 600 Immortal kills, making him the most powerful Immortal on Earth, if one takes this as a metric of power.
After Rachel's death, Connor has hidden in a place called the Sanctuary, where Immortals are protected by the Watchers (a secret society introduced in the TV series) to prevent there ever being only one Immortal left.
After the flashback, Kell and his posse of Immortals attack the Sanctuary, and Connor is believed to be beheaded along with the other Sanctuary Immortals. Duncan Macleod (Adrian Paul) is given a vision of this evil act, and investigates. Eventually, he discovers Connor was spared by Kell, so as to allow the evil Immortal to make his life even more miserable. He wants to kill Duncan to torture Connor, and given the number of Quickenings he has received, this seems very likely. Therefore, Connor forces Duncan to kill Connor, and thereby absorbing all his power in order to defeat Kell.
There is also a sub-plot concering Duncan's Immortal wife, a woman he wedded and then murdered on their wedding night, in order that she become Immortal. However, this has driven her into the arms of Kell, and he must earn her forgiveness, or face her as part of Kell's posse.
The theatrical release of this film was relatively short (87 min.) and rather fast-paced. The DVD version is close to 2 hours in length, boasts a happy ending, and an improved sound mix and soundtrack. The DVD version also contains a rough cut of the film, with a subplot involving Connor MacLeod giving a Christmas tree to an orphanage every Christmas, an activity picked up by Duncan after Connor's death.
Highlander: The Source
The 5th installment to the "Highlander" film series being filmed right now.The movie will be released in 2006.
Television and Animation
- A 1990s television series used the same basic ideas as the films, and it was simply called Highlander:The Series. Its first episode was released on October 6, 1992. The series centred on Connor MacLeod's much younger Immortal "clansman" Duncan MacLeod (Adrian Paul). Connor (Christopher Lambert) makes only one guest appearance in the very first episode to ensure continuity.
The show also starred Jim Byrnes as Joe Dawson, a member of a secret society called "Watchers"; Stan Kirsch as Richie Ryan, a young petty thief who Duncan MacLeod takes in and become great friends -- and early in season 2 becomes Immortal; Elizabeth Gracen as Amanda, an Immortal who is over 1,000 years old and a thief, but a great person; Peter Wingfield as Methos, the oldest living Immortal, who is around 5,000 years old; and the late Werner Stocker as the 2,000-year-old Immortal priest named Darius. The series also starred Alexandra Vandernoot as Duncan MacLeod's girlfriend named Tessa Noel.
This series had six seasons, and 119 episodes. Its last episode was released on May 16, 1998. Most fans consider the memorable episode Comes A Horseman from season five as being the best episode of the series.
- A 1994 animated series, Highlander: The Animated Series, was set in the far future, and featured the character of Quentin MacLeod, voiced by Miklos Perlus.
- Highlander: The Raven was a series that took one of the characters in the previous series, Amanda (Elizabeth Gracen), as its central character. She was accompanied by former police officer Nick Wolfe (Paul Johansson). The first episode was released on November 7, 1998.
- A 2001 animated flash series, The Methos Chronicles, was an internet flash series based on Methos, a character drawn from the television series. Peter Wingfield was the voice actor for the main character of the short series, which lasted only one eight-episode season. The animation quality was consider by most to be poor, but it has found a cult following.
- The producers are making a new anime series/movie called Highlander: Vengeance. It is about a new Highlander named Colin MacLeod. Set in the future, Colin has to battle Immortals and giant robots.
To newcomers, the most confusing aspect of the franchise are the blatant inconsistencies between the television series and the films. To explain the paradoxes presented, the entire Highlander franchise may be seen as three completely separate storylines, occurring in three separate realities. The three realties thus being:
- The reality of the first Highlander movie, where Connor McLeod is the Immortal who wins the prize, and thus the last Immortal. Highlander III is a direct successor to Highlander, and establishes that a group of Immortals -- trapped in a cave centuries prior to The Gathering -- escape after MacLeod's fight with Kurgan, and the battle for The Prize begins again.
- The reality of the original cut of Highlander II, where the Immortals were in fact aliens from another planet who were exiled to Earth. The aliens eventually kill each other off, except for Connor MacLeod, who lives into the 21st Century, when another group of aliens comes after him; thus beginning a fight for survival. Highlander II is unconnected in any way to the other films or television series. The Renegade Version attempts to fit more closely with existing continuity (i.e., eliminating all references to aliens); debate still rages over how much it succeeds in this.
- The reality of the Highlander television series and Highlander: Endgame, which incorporates some of the elements of the first Highlander film, but is not a continuation. In this third reality, there are a much larger number of Immortals still living in the 20th century, with The Gathering still ongoing.
The television series is now regarded by most fans to be a separate "universe," in which most of the events of the original film can be used as background, except for the facts that Connor was not the only Immortal left after defeating the Kurgan, and that Duncan is considered the main Immortal most likely to win The Prize, which is referred to by Duncan in the first season as event happening in an unknown future.
Connor's battle with the Kurgan is therefore simply viewed as an important era in his life, and not a final fight for The Prize. The second movie (and its plots and devices) is not considered part of the series' universe, although the third film fits in without much difficulty. Fans have dubbed Highlanders 1, 2, and 3 as the "Connor Universe," and the Television Series and Highlander: Endgame as the "Duncan Universe."
Books and CDs
- Highlander, by Garry Kilworth — Based on the cult film classic.
- The Best of Highlander: The Book, by Maureen Russels
- The Original Scores - Highlander; Highlander 2: The Quickening and Highlander:The Final Dimension