Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (September 21, 1853 – February 21, 1926) was a Dutch physicist. Onnes' scientific career was spent exploring extremely cold refrigeration techniques and the associated phenomena.
Early years and professorship
In 1870, Onnes attended the University of Groningen. Onnes studied under Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff at the University of Heidelberg from 1871 to 1873. Onnes, again at Groningen, obtained his masters in 1878 and a doctorate in 1879. His thesis was "Nieuwe bewijzen voor de aswenteling der aarde" (tr. New proofs of the rotation of the earth).
From 1882 to 1923 he served as professor of experimental physics at the University of Leiden. In 1904 Onnes founded a very large cryogenics laboratory and invited other researchers to the location. This institution led to Onnes' high regard within the scientific community. In 1908 Onnes was the first physicist to liquify helium, using cryostats. Onnes managed, using the Joule-Thomson effect, to lower the temperature to less than one degree above absolute zero, reaching 0.9 K. At the time this was the coldest place on earth.
Onnes conducted (in 1911) electrical analysis of pure metals (mercury, tin and lead) at very low temperatures. Some, such as William Thomson, believed that electrons flowing through a conductor would come to a complete halt. Others, including Onnes, felt that a conductors electrical resistance would steadily decrease and drop to nil. At 4.2 kelvins the resistance was zero. Onnes stated that the "Mercury has passed into a new state, which on account of its extraordinary electrical properties may be called the superconductive state". Onnes published more articles about the phenomena. Initially, Onnes preferred to call the phenomena "supraconductivity" and, only later, adopted the term "superconductivity".
Among his later achievements was winning the 1913 Nobel Prize in Physics for (in the words of the committee) "his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium". (Inter alia means "among other things".)
Death and afterwards
He died in Leiden. The instruments Onnes devised for his experiments can still be seen at the Boerhaave museum in Leiden. His student and successor as director of the lab Willem Hendrik Keesom was the first person who was able to solidify helium, in 1926.
- Onnes, H. Kamerlingh, "Nieuwe bewijzen voor de aswenteling der aarde." Ph.D. dissertation. Groningen, Netherlands, 1879.
- Onnes, H. Kamerlingh, "Algemeene theorie der vloeistoffen." Amsterdam Akad. Verhandl. 21, 1881.
- Onnes, H. Kamerlingh, "On the Cryogenic Laboratory at Leyden and on the Production of Very Low Temperature." Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden 14, 1894.
- Onnes, H. Kamerlingh, "Théorie générale de l'état fluide." Haarlem Arch. Neerl. 30, 1896.
- Onnes, H. Kamerlingh, "The Superconductivity of Mercury." Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden, Nos. 122 and 124, 1911
- Onnes, H. Kamerlingh, "On the Lowest Temperature Yet Obtained." Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden, No. 159, 1922.
- Timeline of low-temperature technology
- Timeline of states of matter and phase transitions
- Coldest temperature achieved on earth
- List of Nobel laureates
- History of superconductivity
- Levelt-Sengers, J. M. H., "How fluids unmix : discoveries by the School of Van der Waals and Kamerlingh Onnes". Amsterdam, Koninklijke Nerlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, 2002. ISBN 9069843579
- Onnes, Heike Kamerlingh, (Gavroglou, Kōstas. [ed.], and Goudaroulis, Yorgos [ed.]) "Through measurement to knowledge : the selected papers of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1926)". Dordrecht, Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, c1991. Goudaroulis, Yorgos. ISBN 0792308255
- International Institute of Refrigeration (First International Commission), "Rapports et communications issus du Laboratoire Kamerlingh Onnes". International Congress of Refrigeration (7th; 1936; La Hauge), Amsterdam, 1936.
- Nobel Prize, Physics 1913 -- official site
- Boerhave Museum - Dutch National Museum of the History of Science and Medicine
- About Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Nobel-winners.com.
- Eric W. Weisstein , Kamerlingh-Onnes, Heike (1853-1926)
- Dirk Reimer, "Historical background", A Guide to Superconductivity. 1997.