Ford Duratec engine

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Duratec
Manufacturer:Ford
Production:1993 – present
Class:Petrol engine
Capacities:1.3 L
1.4 L
1.6 L
1.8 L
2.0 L
2.3 L
2.5 L
3.0 L
3.5 L
6.0 L
Block:Alloy
Cylinder Head:Alloy/chrome
Valves:8 (small cars) SOHC
16 (4 cyl) DOHC
24 (V6) DOHC
48 (V12) DOHC
Timing:Twin chains
Variable valve timing (Mazda only)
Configuration:In-line 4 cylinder (up to 2.3 L)
60 degree V6 (larger capacities)
V12 (6.0 L)
Fuel Supply Method:Electronic fuel injection or Direct injection, badged SCI
Aspiration:Natural (Standard)
Turbocharged (Focus RS)
Predecessor:Zetec
Successor:none
Also known as:none
Also used by:Aston Martin
Jaguar
Land Rover
Lincoln
Mazda
Mercury
This article is part of the automobile series.

Duratec is a range of 4, 6 cylinder (V6) and 12 cylinder (V12) petrol engines used in Ford cars.

Originally there was a 2.5 L V6 introduced with the Mondeo. When the 2000 Mondeo was introduced the 1.8 L and 2.0 L powerplants became Duratecs too.

Now there are engines of all sizes called Duratec. In North America, Ford uses the Duratec name on all its dual overhead cam engines. In Europe, all Ford gasoline engines are called Duratec.

4 Cylinder

Duratec HE

The Duratec HE is the name used by Ford of Europe for their family of small straight-4 and V6 petrol engines. The family includes 1.8 L and 2.0 L DOHC 16-valve engines and the 2.5 L V6 (also called the Duratec 25). European engines are built at Valencia Engine Plant in Spain.

The Focus RS featured a turbocharged version of the 2.0 L Zetec unit producing 215 bhp (158 kW) and 310 N·m (229 ft·lbf) of torque, although badged a Duratec-RS.

Focus C-Max and Focus Mk. II versions are drive-by-wire throttle to improve responsiveness.

The 99P is a 2.0 L (1988 cc) version built in Dearborn, MI. Bore is 84.8 mm and stroke is 88 mm. It is used in the Ford Focus. Output is 110 hp SAE (82 kW) at 5000 RPM with 130 ft·lbf (176 N·m) of torque at 5300 RPM. It has a cast iron engine block and aluminum SOHC cylinder heads. It uses SFI fuel injection, has roller followers, and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods, a one-piece cast camshaft, and a cast aluminum or reinforced plastic intake manifold.

Another version is used in the US-market SVT Focus. Output is 170 hp (127 kW) at 7000 RPM with 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque at 5500 RPM.

Duratec SCi

The 1.8 L was the first European Ford to use direct injection technology, badged SCi for Smart Charge injection. This appeared in the Mondeo in 2003 and is today available on the 2.0 L engine as well as an expected 1.1 L version.

The SCi engines were designed at Ford's Cologne, Germany facility and are produced there and in Valencia, Spain. The SCi engine is paired with a specially-designed six-speed manual transmission.

Duratec 20

File:Ford Duratec 20 engine.jpg
Ford Duratec 20 engine in a 2005 Ford Focus

Beginning in 2004, Ford dropped the old 4-cylinder Zetec engines in favor of Mazda's MZR design. Thus, 2005+ Duratec 4 cylinder engines are Mazdas. This includes the 2.0 L Duratec 20 and 2.3 L Duratec 23.

The 993 is a 2.0 L (1988 cc) version built in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico. Bore is 84.8 mm and stroke is 88 mm. It is used in the Ford Escape and Focus. Output is 130 hp (97 kW) at 5300 RPM with 135 ft·lbf (183 N·m) of torque at 4500 rpm. It has an aluminum engine block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. The cylinders are lined with cast iron. It uses SFI fuel injection, has 4 valves per cylinder with VVT and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods, a one-piece cast camshaft, and a cast aluminum or reinforced plastic intake manifold.

Duratec 23

The Duratec 23 is a 2.3 L (2261 cc) version of the Mazda-designed Duratec 20. Bore is 87.4 mm and stroke is 94 mm. It has an aluminum engine block with cast iron cylinder liners and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. It uses SFI fuel injection, has 4 valves per cylinder with VCT and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods and a one-piece cast camshaft.

The 23EW is built in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico for use in the US-market Focus, Mazda3 and Mazda6. Output is 144 hp (107 kW) at 5750 RPM with 149 ft·lbf (202 N·m) of torque at 4200 rpm.

The 23NS is built in Dearborn, MI for the Ford Ranger and Mazda B-Series. Output is 143 hp (107 kW) at 5250 rpm with 154 ft·lbf (209 N·m) of torque at 5750 rpm.

Applications:

Duratec E

The Duratec E is a version of the Duratec 23 with California P-ZEV emissions.

Duratec 8v

The Duratec 8v name is currently being used to label two totally different engines used in the European Ford Ka.

  • The 1.3 L Duratec 8V, 44 kW (60 PS) is a renamed archaic Endura-E engine
  • The 1.3 L Duratec 8V, 51 kW (70 PS) and the 1.6 L Duratec 8V, 70 kW (95PS) are in fact the Brazilian built Zetec-Rocam engine.

6 Cylinder

All three V6 Duratecs are evolutions of the same design. It is a modern aluminum DOHC V6 with a 60° bank angle. The primary engineering input came from Porsche, who were developing a similar V6 before selling the engineering to Ford, and Cosworth, who helped with cylinder head manufacturing.

The Jaguar AJ-V6 engine is similar but adds variable valve timing. Mazda's AJ version also has this feature.


Duratec 25

The Duratec 25 is a 2.5 L (2544 cc) 60° V6 and was introduced in 1994. It was developed for the Ford Mondeo and used in the Ford Contour, Jaguar X-Type, and others. Bore is 82.4 mm and stroke is 79.5 mm.

The Duratec 25 was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1995 and 1996, and the SVT version made the list for 1998 and 1999.

Duratec 25 SVT

An SVT version produced 195 hp (145 kW) and 165 ft·lbf (224 N·m) in 1998. It included a larger throttle body from the Duratec 30, a new cone-shaped air filter, and extrude honing on the intake manifold. A lighter flywheel and low-restriction exhaust complete the picture. Further improvemnets were made in 1999 that raised power output to 200 hp (149 kW) and 169 ft·lbf (229 N·m) and were carried over in the 2000 model. The SVT engine was used in the 1998-2000 Ford Contour SVT.

Duratec VE

The 2.5 L, 170 hp V6 used in Ford Mondeo is called Duratec VE.

Mazda AJ

Mazda used the Duratec 25 block and camshaft in their 2000 MPV. However, they reduced the size from 2.54 L to 2.49 L to keep under a 2.5 L tax cap in Japan. This was accomplished with a reduction of the bore from 82.420 mm to 81.660 mm (both round to 3.2 in). The engine produced 170 hp (127 kW) at 6250 rpm and 165 ft·lbf (224 N·m) of torque. It was replaced in 2002 with the larger 3.0 L Duratec 30-based Mazda AJ.

Duratec 30

Ford's standard DOHC V6 is known as the Duratec 30 or Mazda AJ. It was introduced in 1996 as a replacement for the 232 Essex in the Taurus/Sable, but the Duratec never matched the performance of the Essex. It has 3.0 L (2967 cc) of displacement and produces between 200 and 240 horsepower (150 and 180 kW). The same engine is used by the Jaguar S-Type, Lincoln LS, Mazda MPV, Mazda6, and many other Ford vehicles. It is essentially a bored-out (to 88.9 mm) Duratec 25 and is built in Ford's Cleveland, OH #2 plant. A slightly modified version for the Ford Five Hundred entered production at the Cleveland, OH #1 plant in 2004.

It has an aluminum engine block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. The cylinders are lined with cast iron. It uses SFI fuel injection, has 4 valves per cylinder and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods and an assembled cast aluminum intake manifold.

There are two key versions of the Duratec 30:

  • DAMB - The Lincoln LS and Jaguar AJ30 versions have direct-acting mechanical bucket (DAMB) tappets. Output is 232 hp (173 kW) at 6750 RPM with 220 ft·lbf (298 N·m) of torque at 4500 rpm.
  • RFF - The Taurus/Sable/Escape version uses roller finger followers (RFF) instead and produces 201 hp (150 kW) at 5900 RPM with 207 ft·lbf (281 N·m) of torque at 4400 rpm.

Applications:

The 2006 Ford Fusion, Mercury Milan, and Lincoln Zephyr will feature a version of the Duratec 30 utilizing variable valve timing. The engine will have an output of 221 horsepower (165 kW) at 6250 rpm, and 205 ft·lbf (278 N·m) of torque at 4800 rpm.

Mazda MZI

Mazda's MZI version adds variable valve timing, as does Jaguar's AJ30. It displaces 2967 cc with an 89 mm bore and 79.5 mm stroke. Output (on the MPV) is 200 hp at 6200 RPM with 200 ft·lbf (271 N·m) of torque at 3000 rpm. Note that the MZI name is also used in Europe on Mazda's version of the Ford Sigma I4.

Duratec ST

The 3.0 L, 226 hp V6 used in the Mondeo ST220 is called Duratec ST.

Duratec SE

The 3.0 L, 204 hp V6 in the Mondeo Titanium is called Duratec SE.

Duratec 35

The Duratec 35 (code-name Cyclone) is a new 3.5 L V6 that will appear in the Fall of 2006. It is an all-aluminum engine based on the Duratec 30, and adds variable cam timing on the intake side, a feature already found on the Jaguar AJ30 and Mazda AJ versions of the 3.0. Its displacement can be increased to 3.8 liters, meaning a Duratec 38 could come soon after.

The new heads relocate all accessory drives to the front of the engine with a flush chain drive, saving space. The new combustion chambers are reshaped as well. Gasoline direct injection and turbocharging can be added later. A dual-stage variable length intake manifold, centrally-located sparkplugs, and a 10.3:1 compression ratio are other features.

Engine output could reach 300 hp (224 kW), but will probably be 250 hp (186 kW) and 240 ft·lbf (325 N·m) for most applications, still a substantial upgrade in power from the Duratec 30.

The engine is the same size as the Duratec 30, and should be usable in all vehicles currently using that engine and its derivatives. The company expects the engine to be used in one fifth of all Ford products by the end of the decade.

The aluminum block is made by Teksid in Alabama, while the heads come from Nemak in Mexico, and the crankshaft comes from Bharat Forge of India. The engine will be assembled in Lima, Ohio, with expansion planned in Cleveland Engine Plant #1. Production begins in 2006. The Duratec 35 will replace the Duratec 30 in some applications (notably the Ford Five Hundred) by the end of that year, but the Duratec 30 will continue in production.

Applications:

8 Cylinder

The Ford Yamaha V8 engine is a version of the 2.5 L V6 was produced with two additional cylinders (3.4 L V8) but was not called a Duratec officially.

12 Cylinder

The 6.0 L V12 used in Aston Martin cars is sometimes erroneously referred to as "essentially two 3.0 L V6 units bolted together", likely due to confusion over with the single 6.0 L V12 engine developed for the Ford GT90 prototype. In reality, the engine is custom-built for Aston Martin by Cosworth Technology (both Aston Martin and Cosworth are owned by Ford) and while it uses some standard Duratec components, it is Cosworth's own design. Aston Martin use this engine in the DB7 Vantage, the V12 Vanquish and the DB9.

These engines will generally work with the CD4E, MTX-75 and Durashift gearboxes.

See also

References