Cleveland Ohio

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Template:Infobox City Template:Redirect For the Cleveland area, see Greater Cleveland. The city of Cleveland is the county seat of Cuyahoga County in the U.S. state of Ohio. The city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, in the Western Reserve in northeastern Ohio on the Cuyahoga River, approximately 60 miles (100 km) west of the Pennsylvania border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the river, and became a manufacturing center owing to its location at the head of numerous canals and railroad lines. After the decline of heavy manufacturing, Cleveland's businesses are now more often in the financial services, insurance, and healthcare sectors.

As of the 2000 Census, the city proper had a total population of 478,403, making it the 33rd largest city in the nation. It is the center of Greater Cleveland, the largest metropolitan area in Ohio, which spans several counties and is defined in several different ways by the United States Census Bureau. The Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor Metropolitan Statistical Area had over 2.1 M people and is the 23rd largest in the country. Cleveland is also part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area, which was the 14th largest in the country with a population of over 2.9 M according to the 2000 Census.

City residents and tourists benefit from investments made by wealthy residents in the city's heyday in arts and cultural institutions, and philanthropy also helped to establish a robust public library system in the region. More recent investments have provided the city with tourist attractions in the downtown area, such as Jacobs Field, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and Playhouse Square Center. In a study conducted by The Economist in 2005, Cleveland and Pittsburgh were ranked as the most livable cities in the United States.[1] Nevertheless, the city faces continuing challenges, in particular from concentrated poverty in some neighborhoods and difficulties in the funding and delivering of high-quality public education.

Residents of Cleveland are usually referred to as Clevelanders. Nicknames used for the city include The Forest City, The Comeback City, The New American City, America's North Coast, and C-Town.

History

Main article: History of Cleveland, Ohio

Cleveland obtained its name on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company named an area in Ohio "Cleaveland" after General Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party, a month after white settlers had signed a treaty with local Native Americans to acquire the land. Cleaveland laid out the plan for the modern Public Square area before returning home, never again to visit the area. The village of Cleaveland was incorporated on 23 December 1814.[2] The spelling of the city's name was later changed to "Cleveland" when, in 1831, an "a" was dropped so the name could fit a newspaper's masthead.

File:Cleveland map 1904.jpg
Map of Cleveland in 1904

Though not initially apparent—the city was surrounded by swampland and the harsh winters did not encourage settlement—the location proved providential. The city began to grow rapidly after the completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal in 1832, turning the city into a key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes, and particularly once the city railroad links were added. The rapid growth resulted in Cleveland's incorporation as a city in 1836.[3] The following year, the city, then located on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City (since annexed), over a bridge connecting the two. As a halfway point for iron ore coming from Minnesota across the Great Lakes and for coal and other raw materials coming by rail from the south, the site flourished. Cleveland became one of the major manufacturing and population centers of the United States, and was home to numerous major steel firms. Standard Oil founder John D. Rockefeller made his fortune there, and by 1920, it was the fifth largest city in the country. The city was also one of the centers of the national progressive movement, headed locally by Mayor Tom L. Johnson. Many Clevelanders of this era are buried in the historic Lake View Cemetery, including the 20th president, James A. Garfield.

In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the lakeshore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize a city hit hard by the Great Depression, the exposition drew 4 million visitors in its first season, and 7 million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937. The exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.

File:Cleveland ohio 1937.jpg
Aerial view of downtown Cleveland in December 1937. The Cuyahoga River winds through the Flats.

The city experienced a downturn in the post-World War II period, as heavy industries slumped and residents sought new housing in the suburbs. The city witnessed racial unrest in the 1960s, culminating in the Hough Riots on July 18–23, 1966, and the Glenville Shootout on July 23–25, 1968. The city's nadir is often considered to be its default on its loans on December 15, 1978, when under Mayor Dennis Kucinich it became the first major American city to enter default since the Great Depression. National media began referring to Cleveland as "the mistake by/on the lake" around this time, in reference to both the city's financial difficulties as well as a 1969 fire on the Cuyahoga River where the oil and waste on the river's surface caught on fire. The city has struggled to shed this nickname ever since, though in recent times the national media have been much kinder to the city, using it as the poster child for downtown revitalization and urban renaissance.

The metropolitan area began a recovery thereafter under Mayors George Voinovich and Michael White. Redevelopment within the city limits has been strongest in the downtown area near the Gateway complex—consisting of Jacobs Field and Quicken Loans Arena—and near the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Cleveland Browns Stadium; however, many of the inner-city residential neighborhoods remain troubled, and the public school system continues to experience serious problems. Economic development, retention of young professionals, and capitalizing upon its Lake Erie waterfront are current municipal priorities.

Geography and climate

Geography

File:Public Square 1912.jpg
Panorama of Public Square in 1912

Cleveland is located at Template:Coor dmsTemplate:GR. According to the United States Census Bureau[4], the city has a total area of 82.4 mi² (213.5 km²). 77.6 mi² (201.0 km²) of it is land and 4.8 mi² (12.5 km²) of it is water. The total area is 5.87% water.

The shore of Lake Erie is 569 feet (173 m) above sea level; however, the city lies on a series of irregular bluffs lying roughly parallel to the lake. In Cleveland these bluffs are cut principally by the Cuyahoga River, Big Creek, and Euclid Creek. The land rises quickly from the lakeshore. Public Square, less than a mile (2 km) inland, sits at an elevation of 650 feet (198 m), and Hopkins Airport, only five miles (8 km) inland from the lake, is at an elevation of 770 feet (235 m).

Cityscape

Cleveland's downtown architecture is varied. Many of the city's government and civic buildings, including City Hall, the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, the Cleveland Public Library, and Public Auditorium are clustered around an open mall and share a common neoclassical architecture. Built in the early 20th century, they are the result of the 1903 Group Plan, and constitute one the most complete examples of City Beautiful design in the United States. The Terminal Tower, dedicated in 1930, was the tallest building in the United States outside New York City until 1967 and the tallest in the city until 1991. It is a prototypical Beaux-Arts skyscraper. The two newer skyscrapers on Public Square, Key Tower (currently the tallest building in the city) and the BP Building, combine elements of Art Deco architecture with postmodern designs. One of Cleveland's architectural treasures is The Arcade (sometimes called the Old Arcade), a five-story arcade built in 1890.[5]

Running east from Public Square to University Circle is Euclid Avenue, which at one time rivaled New York's Fifth Avenue for prestige and elegance. Known as "Millionaire's Row", Euclid Avenue was world-renowned as the home of such internationally-known names as Rockefeller, Hanna, and Hay.

The countywide Cleveland Metroparks system, often referred to as the "Emerald Necklace", includes three parks in Cleveland. In the Big Creek valley sits the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, which contains the largest collection of primates of any zoo in the United States. The other two parks are Brookside Park and part of the Rocky River Reservation. Apart from the Metroparks is Cleveland Lakefront State Park, which provides public access to Lake Erie. Among its six parks are Edgewater Park, located between the Shoreway and Lake Erie just west of downtown, and Euclid Beach Park and Gordon Park on the east side. The City of Cleveland's Rockefeller Park, with its many Cultural Gardens honoring the city's ethnic groups, follows Doan Brook across the east side.

Neighborhoods

Downtown Cleveland includes several neighborhoods, such as the Flats and the Warehouse District, which are predominantly occupied by restaurants and bars. Residential opportunities in townhomes, lofts, and apartments also increased downtown during the late 1990s and the first half of the following decade.

Cleveland residents often define themselves in terms of whether they live on the west side or the east side of the Cuyahoga River.[6] The west side of the city includes the following neighborhoods: Brooklyn Center, Clark-Fulton, Detroit Shoreway, Cudell, Edgewater, Kamm's Corners, Jefferson, Ohio City, Old Brooklyn, Puritas-Longmead, Riverside, Stockyards, West Boulevard, and West Park. Three neighborhoods are on the west side of the river, but are sometimes referred to as the south side: Industrial Valley, Slavic Village (North and South Broadway), and Tremont. The east side comprises the following neighborhoods: Buckeye-Shaker Square, Central, Collinwood, Corlett, Euclid-Green, Fairfax, Forest Hills, Glenville, Goodrich-Kirtland, Hough, Kinsman, Lee-Miles, Mount Pleasant, St. Clair-Superior, Union-Miles Park, University Circle-Little Italy, and Woodland Hills.

Climate

The shoreline is very close to due east-west from the mouth of the Cuyahoga west to Sandusky, but at the mouth of the Cuyahoga it turns sharply northeast. This feature is the principal contributor to the lake effect snow that is a mainstay of Cleveland (especially east side) weather from mid-November until the surface of Lake Erie freezes, usually in late January or early February. The lake effect causes snowfall totals to range greatly across the city; while Hopkins Airport has only reached 100 inches (2540 mm) of snowfall in a given season three times since 1968[7], seasonal totals approaching or exceeding 100 inches are not uncommon in an area known as the "Snow Belt", extending from the east side of Cleveland proper through the eastern suburbs and up the Lake Erie shore as far as Buffalo.

The all-time record high in Cleveland of 104 °F (40 °C) was established on June 25, 1988, and the all-time record low of −20 °F (−29 °C) was set on January 19, 1994.[8] On average, July is the warmest month with a mean temperature of 71.9 °F (22.2 °C), and January, with a mean temperature of 25.7 °F (−3.5 °C), is the coldest. Normal yearly rainfall based on the 30-year average from 1961 to 1990 is 36.6 inches (930 mm).[9]

Demographics

Historical populations[10]
Census
year
Population

1840 6,071
1850 17,034
1860 43,417
1870 92,829
1880 160,146
1890 261,353
1900 381,768
1910 560,663
1920 796,841
1930 900,429
1940 878,336
1950 914,808
1960 876,050
1970 750,903
1980 573,822
1990 505,616
2000 478,403

As of the 2000 CensusTemplate:GR , there were 478,403 people, 190,638 households, and 111,904 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,380.9/km² (6,166.5/mi²). There were 215,856 housing units at an average density of 1,074.3/km² (2,782.4/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 41.49% White, 50.99% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 1.35% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.59% from other races, and 2.24% from two or more races. 7.26% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.

File:DSCN4532 clevelandtrueholiness e2.jpg
This church on Cleveland's East Side serves a primarily African American congregation. Cleveland's ethnic population has left its mark on the city in a variety of architectural styles, especially in the many older churches throughout the city.

There were 190,638 households out of which 29.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.5% were married couples living together, 24.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.3% were nonfamilies. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.19. The population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $25,928, and the median income for a family was $30,286. Males had a median income of $30,610 versus $24,214 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,291. 26.3% of the population and 22.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 37.6% of those under the age of 18 and 16.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Cleveland was hit hard in the 1960s and early 1970s by white flight and suburbanization, further exacerbated by the busing-based desegregation of Cleveland schools required by the United States Supreme Court. Although busing ended in the 1990s, Cleveland continued to slide into poverty, reaching a nadir in 2004 when it was named the poorest large city in the United States.[11] The 2005 rankings announced the city had dropped from first in poverty to twelfth, with the rate dropping from 31.3% to 23.2%.[12]

Government and politics

Cleveland's position as a center of manufacturing established it as a hotbed of union activity early in its history. This contributed to a political progressivism that has influenced Cleveland politics to the present. While other parts of Ohio, particularly Cincinnati and the southern portion of the state, have historically supported the Republican Party, Cleveland commonly breeds the strongest support in the state for the Democrats; Cleveland's two representatives in the House of Representatives are Democrats: Dennis Kucinich and Stephanie Tubbs Jones. Historically, the Democratic Party has received the support of both white and black ethnic voters, especially Catholics. During the 2004 Presidential election, although George W. Bush carried Ohio, John Kerry carried Cuyahoga County, which gave him the strongest support in the state.

The city of Cleveland operates on the mayor-council (strong mayor) form of government. The mayor is the chief executive of the city, and the office is currently held by Jane L. Campbell. Campbell lost her re-election bid to Cleveland City Council president Frank G. Jackson on November 8 2005; Jackson will take office on January 1 2006. Previous mayors of Cleveland include progressive Democrat Tom L. Johnson, Republican Senator George V. Voinovich, and Carl B. Stokes, the first African American mayor of a major city.

See also: List of Mayors of Cleveland, Ohio, Notable Cleveland politicians

Economy

Cleveland's location on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie proved providential in the growth of the city and its industry. Cleveland experienced explosive growth after the opening of the Ohio and Erie Canal, establishing the city as one of the manufacturing centers of America. Steel and many other manufactured goods were major industries.

The city was hit hard by the fall of manufacturing, but the city has diversified its economy to include service-based industries. Cleveland is the corporate headquarters of many large companies such as National City Corporation, Eaton Corporation, Forest City Enterprises, Sherwin Williams Company, and KeyCorp. NASA also maintains a facility in Cleveland, the Glenn Research Center.

Cleveland has also become a world leader in health care and health sciences. The world-famous Cleveland Clinic, the area's largest employer, is one of the highest-ranked hospitals in the United States as tabulated by U.S. News and World Report.[13] Cleveland's healthcare industry also includes University Hospitals of Cleveland, a noted competitor of the Clinic's which is ranked #18 in cancer research[14], and MetroHealth medical center.

Cleveland is emerging as a leader in biotechnology and fuel cell research, led by Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic, and University Hospitals of Cleveland. Cleveland is now one of the top areas in receiving seed money for biotech start-ups and research. Case Western Reserve, the Clinic, and University Hospitals have recently announced plans to build a large biotechnology research center and incubator on the site of the former Mt. Sinai Medical Center, creating a research campus to stimulate biotech startup companies that can be spun off from research conducted in the city.

Additionally, city leaders stepped up efforts to cultivate a technology sector in its economy in the early 2000s. Mayor Campbell appointed a "tech czar", whose job is to actively recruit tech companies to the downtown office market, offering connections to the high-speed fiber networks that run underneath downtown streets in several "high-tech offices" focused on the Euclid Avenue area. Cleveland State University hired a Technology Transfer Officer to work full time on cultivating technology transfers from CSU research to marketable ideas and companies in the Cleveland area, and recently announced the appointment of a Vice President for Economic Development that will be working to leverage the university's assets in expanding the city's economy. Case Western Reserve University is also involved in technology initiatives such as the OneCleveland project, a high-speed fiber optic network connecting all nonprofits in the area at high speeds, intended to breed collaboration among the area's major research centers and produce jobs for the city and region. In early 2005, Cleveland was named an Intel "Worldwide Digital Community" with Corpus Christi, Texas, and Philadelphia. This distinction will give the region around $12 million to use for marketing and expansion of regional technology partnerships and a tech economy. Intel credited OneCleveland as a defining reason for the award, and the city looks to capitalize on the publicity and technology partnerships it will bring.

Education

Cleveland is home to a number of colleges and universities. Most prominent among these is Case Western Reserve University, a world-renowned research and teaching institution based at University Circle. Case is a private university with its enrollment having a higher percentage of graduate students than undergraduate. However, Case has recently increased its freshman class enrollment in all areas. University Circle is also home to the Cleveland Institute of Art, the Cleveland Institute of Music, and the Ohio College of Podiatric Medicine. Cleveland State University, based in downtown Cleveland, is the city's public four-year university. In addition to CSU, downtown hosts the metropolitan campus of Cuyahoga Community College, the county's two-year higher education institution, as well as Myers University.

The Cleveland Municipal School District is an underperforming urban district, though test scores have recently improved under mayoral control and outgoing school CEO Barbara Byrd-Bennett. During Byrd-Bennett's tenure, the system improved in academics and attendance and passed a $1.2 billion school building construction/replacement issue; however, it failed numerous times to pass an operating levy, and currently faces large budget shortfalls and the possibility of slipping back into "academic emergency" as rated by the Ohio Department of Education in 2005.

Culture

Five miles (8 km) east of downtown Cleveland is University Circle, a 500-acre (2 km²) concentration of cultural, educational, and medical institutions, including Case Western Reserve University, Severance Hall, University Hospitals, and the Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland is also home to the I. M. Pei-designed Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, located on a Lake Erie harbor immediately north of downtown. Neighboring attractions include Cleveland Browns Stadium, the Great Lakes Science Center, the Steamship Mather Museum, and the USS Cod, a World War II submarine.

Cleveland is home to Playhouse Square Center, the second largest performing arts center in the United States behind New York's Lincoln Center. Playhouse Square includes the State, Palace, Allen, Hanna, and Ohio theaters within what is known as the Theater District of Downtown Cleveland. Playhouse Square's resident performing arts companies include the Cleveland Opera, Ohio Ballet, and the Great Lakes Theater Festival. The center also hosts various Broadway musicals, special concerts, speaking engagements, and other events throughout the year. One Playhouse Square, now the headquarters for Cleveland's public broadcasters, was originally used as the broadcast studios of WJW Radio, where disc jockey Alan Freed purportedly first coined the term "rock and roll".

Additionally, Cleveland is home to the Cleveland Orchestra, widely considered one of the finest orchestras in the world, and often referred to as the finest in the United States.[15] It is one of the "Big Five" major orchestras in the United States. The Orchestra plays in Severance Hall during the winter and at Blossom Music Center during the summer.

Cleveland is home to many festivals throughout the year. Cultural festivals such as the annual Feast of the Assumption in the Little Italy neighborhood and the Polish Festival in the Slavic Village neighborhood are popular events. Vendors at the West Side Market in Ohio City offer many different ethnic foods for sale. Cleveland hosts an annual parade on Saint Patrick's Day that brings thousands to the streets of downtown.

In addition to the cultural festivals, Cleveland also hosts the CMJ Rock Hall Music Fest, which features national and local acts, including both established artists and up-and-coming acts. The city recently incorporated an annual art and technology festival, known as Ingenuity, which features a combination of art and technology in various installations and performances throughout lower Euclid Avenue. Cleveland also hosts an annual holiday display lighting and celebration, dubbed Winterfest, which is held downtown at the city's historic hub, Public Square.

Media

Cleveland is served in print by The Plain Dealer, the city's sole remaining daily newspaper. The competing Cleveland Press ceased publication in 1982, and the Cleveland News ended its run in 1960. Cleveland also supports several alternative weekly publications, including the Free Times and Cleveland Scene.

Cleveland is ranked as the 16th largest television market by Nielsen Media Research.[16] The market is served by stations affiliated with major American networks including WKYC 3 (NBC), WEWS 5 (ABC), WJW 8 (FOX), WOIO 19 (CBS), WUAB 43 (UPN), and WBNX 55 (WB). Cleveland is also served by WVPX 23 (i) and Spanish-language channel WQHS 61 (Univision). WVIZ 25 and WEAO 49 are members of PBS. A Cleveland first in television was The Morning Exchange program on WEWS, which defined the morning show format, and served as the inspiration for Good Morning America. Local television celebrities include Ghoulardi, Big Chuck and Little John, Dick Goddard, Ted Henry, Don Webster, and Dorothy Fuldheim.

Sports

File:Jacobs field scoreboard.jpg
Jacobs Field, home of the Cleveland Indians, features the largest scoreboard in North America.

Cleveland's professional sports teams include the Cleveland Indians (Major League Baseball), Cleveland Browns (National Football League), Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association), and Cleveland Barons (American Hockey League). Annual sporting events held in Cleveland include the Champ Car Grand Prix of Cleveland, the Cleveland Marathon, and the Ohio Classic college football game. The city hosted the Gravity Games, an extreme sports series, from 2002 to 2004. Local sporting facilities include Jacobs Field, Cleveland Browns Stadium, Quicken Loans Arena, and the Wolstein Center.

Cleveland has long been known as a "football town", and the Browns dominated the NFL from 1950 to 1955. The team's franchise is one of the most storied in football, though it last won an NFL championship in 1964 and has never appeared in the Super Bowl. The Cleveland Indians last reached the World Series in 1995 and 1997, though they lost to the Atlanta Braves and Florida Marlins, respectively, and have not won the series since 1948. Between 1995 and 2001, Jacobs Field sold out for 455 consecutive games, a Major League Baseball record. The Cleveland Cavaliers are experiencing a renaissance with Cleveland fans due to LeBron James, a native of nearby Akron and the number one overall draft pick of 2003. The city's recent lack of success in sports have earned it a reputation of being a cursed sports city, which ESPN validated by proclaiming Cleveland as its "most tortured sports city" in 2004.[17]

At the 2005 Major League Soccer All-Star Game in Columbus, MLS commissioner Don Garber announced that Cleveland was one of several top areas in contention for an expansion team in 2007. Cleveland fielded an NHL team, the Cleveland Barons, from 1976 to 1978, which was later merged into the Minnesota North Stars. The city remains without major-league hockey to the present, although today's Cleveland Barons, the AHL affiliate of the San Jose Sharks, maintains a tradition of professional hockey in Cleveland stretching back to 1937.[18]

Transportation

The city is home to two airports. Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is the city's major facility and a large international airport that serves as one of three main hubs for Continental Airlines. It holds the distinction of having the first airport-to-downtown rapid transit connection, established in 1968. In 1930, the airport was the site of the first airfield lighting system and the first air traffic control tower. In addition to Hopkins, Cleveland is served by Burke Lakefront Airport, on the north shore of downtown between Lake Erie and the Shoreway. Burke is primarily a commuter and business airport.

File:Cuyahoga river and downtown cleveland.jpg
A collection of bridges crossing the Cuyahoga River in downtown Cleveland. The low-level bridges are drawbridges, while the high-level bridge in the background is fixed.

Cleveland currently has a bus and rail mass transit system operated by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, also known as "RTA". The rail portion is officially called the Cleveland Rapid Transit, but is better known as The Rapid. It consists of two light rail lines, known as the Green and Blue Lines, and a heavy rail line, the Red Line. RTA is currently installing a bus rapid transit line, coined the "Silver Line", which will run along Euclid Avenue from downtown to University Circle.[19]

Three two-digit Interstate highways serve Cleveland directly. Interstate 71 begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland to the airport. I-71 runs through the southwestern suburbs and eventually connects Cleveland with Columbus. Interstate 77 begins in downtown Cleveland and runs almost due south through the southern suburbs. I-77 sees the least traffic of the three interstates, although it does connect Cleveland to Akron. Interstate 90 connects the two sides of Cleveland, and is the northern terminus for both I-71 and I-77. Running due east/west through the west side suburbs, I-90 turns northeast at the junction with I-71 and I-490, and is known as the Innerbelt through downtown. At the junction with the Shoreway, I-90 makes a 90-degree turn known in the area as "Dead Man's Curve", then continues northeast, entering Lake County at the eastern split with Ohio 2. Cleveland is also served by two three-digit interstates, Interstate 480, which enters Cleveland briefly at a few points and Interstate 490, which connects I-77 with the junction of I-90 and I-71 just south of downtown.

Two other limited-access highways serve Cleveland. The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway carries Ohio 2 along its length, and at varying points also carries US 6, US 20 and I-90. The Jennings Freeway (Ohio 176) connects I-71 just south of I-90 to I-480 near the suburbs of Parma and Brooklyn Heights. A third highway, the Berea Freeway (Ohio 237), connects I-71 to the airport, and forms part of the boundary between Cleveland and Brook Park.

See also

References

  1. ^  "Vancouver tops liveability ranking according to a new survey by the Economist Intelligence Unit". Accessed October 11, 2005.
  2. ^  The Encyclopedia Of Cleveland History (2002). Case Western Reserve University.
  3. ^  Ibid.
  4. ^  Cleveland, Ohio Fact Sheet (United States Census Bureau). Accessed October 11, 2005.
  5. ^  Encyclopedia of Cleveland History.
  6. ^ Neighborhood Link. Accessed October 14, 2005.
  7. ^  Cleveland Snowfalle (sic) Statistics (National Weather Service). Accessed October 13, 2005.
  8. ^  The Weather Channel (1995-2005). Monthly Climatology Graph. Retrieved October 16, 2005.
  9. ^  National - Average Monthly Precipitation (Department of Meteorology, University of Utah). Accessed October 13, 2005.
  10. ^  Gibson, Campbell. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990. Accessed October 11, 2005.
  11. ^  The Associated Press. Cleveland rated poorest big city in U.S. Accessed via MSNBC, October 12, 2005.
  12. ^  Exner, Rich, and Smith, Robert L. "Cleveland no longer poorest U.S. big city", The Plain Dealer. (August 31, 2005)
  13. ^  U.S. News & World Report (2005). Best Hospitals 2005: Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved October 16, 2005.
  14. ^  U.S. News & World Report (2005). Best Hospitals 2005: Cancer. Retrieved October 16, 2005.
  15. ^  Walsh, Michael. "The Finest Orchestra? (Surprise!) Cleveland", Time. (January 10, 1994)
  16. ^  Nielsen Media Research: Metered Markets. Accessed October 11, 2005.
  17. ^  Darcy, Kieran. ESPN.com: Page 2 : Mistakes by the lake (July 13, 2004). Accessed October 11, 2005.
  18. ^  Sports E-cyclopedia: Cleveland Barons (1976-1978). Accessed October 11, 2005.
  19. ^  The Euclid Corridor Transportation Project. Accessed October 11, 2005.

External links

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