C*-algebra
C*-algebras are an important area of research in functional analysis, a branch of mathematics. A C*-algebra can be defined concretely as a complex algebra A of linear operators on a complex Hilbert space with two additional properties:
- A is a topologically closed set in the norm topology of operators.
- A is closed under the operation taking adjoints of operators.
It is generally believed that C*-algebras were first considered primarily for their use in quantum mechanics to model algebras of physical observables. This line of research began in an extremely rudimentary form with Werner Heisenberg's matrix mechanics and in a more mathematically developed form with Pascual Jordan around 1933. Subsequently John von Neumann attempted to establish a general framework for these algebras which culminated in a series of papers on rings of operators. These papers considered a special class of C*-algebras which are now known as von Neumann algebras.
Around 1943, the work of Israel Gelfand, Mark Naimark and Irving Segal yielded an abstract characterisation of C*-algebras making no reference to operators.
C*-algebras are now an important tool in the theory of unitary representations of locally compact groups, and are also used in algebraic formulations of quantum mechanics.
Contents
Abstract characterization
We begin with the abstract characterization of C*-algebras given in the 1943 paper by Gel'fand and Naimark.
A C*-algebra A is a Banach algebra over the field of complex numbers, together with a map * : A → A called involution. The image of an element x of A under involution is written x*. Involution has the following properties:
- For all x, y in A:
- For every λ in C and every x in A:
- For all x in A
- The C* condition holds for all x in A:
Any C*-algebra is automatically a B*-algebra, since the C* condition implies that
for all x in A. However, not every B*-algebra is a C*-algebra.
A bounded linear map π : A → B between B*-algebras A and B is called a *-homomorphism if
- For x and y in A
- For x in A
In the case of C*-algebras, the boundedness condition is superfluous. In fact, any *-homomorphism between C*-algebras is contractive. If π is bijective, then its inverse is also a *-homomorphism and π is called a *-isomorphism and A and B are said to be *-isomorphic.
Examples
Finite-dimensional C*-algebras
The algebra M_{n}(C) of n-by-n matrices over C becomes a C*-algebra if we consider matrices as operators on the Euclidean space C^{n} and use the operator norm ||.|| on matrices. The involution is given by the conjugate transpose. More generally, one can consider finite direct sums of matrix algebras.
Theorem. A finite-dimensional C*-algebra A is canonically isomorphic to a finite direct sum
where min A is the set of minimal nonzero self-adjoint central projections of A. Each C*-algebra Ae is isomorphic (in a noncanonical way) to the full matrix algebra M_{dim(e)}(C). The finite family indexed on min A given by {dim(e)}_{e} is called the dimension vector of A. This vector uniquely determines the isomorphism class of a finite-dimensional C*-algebra.
C*-algebras of operators
The prototypical example of a C*-algebra is the algebra L(H) of continuous linear operators defined on a complex Hilbert space H; here x* denotes the adjoint operator of the operator x : H → H. In fact, every C*-algebra A is *-isomorphic to a norm-closed adjoint closed subalgebra of L(H) for a suitable Hilbert space H; this is the content of the Gelfand-Naimark theorem.
Commutative C*-algebras
Let X be a locally compact Hausdorff space. The space C_{0}(X) of complex-valued continuous functions on X that vanish at infinity (defined in the article on local compactness) form a commutative C*-algebra C_{0}(X) under pointwise multiplication and addition. The involution is pointwise conjugation. C_{0}(X) has a multiplicative unit element iff X is compact. As does any C*-algebra, C_{0}(X) has an approximate identity. In the case of C_{0}(X) this is immediate: consider the directed set of compact subsets of X, and for each compact K let f_{K} be a function of compact support which is identically 1 on K. Such functions exist by the Tietze-Urysohn theorem which applies to locally compact Hausdorff spaces. {f_{K}}_{K} is an approximate identity.
The Gelfand representation states that every commutative C*-algebra is *-isomorphic to the algebra C_{0}(X), where X is the space of characters equipped with the weak* topology. Furthermore if C_{0}(X) is isomorphic to C_{0}(Y) as C*-algebras, it follows that X and Y are homeomorphic. This characterization is one of the motivations for the noncommutative topology and noncommutative geometry programs.
The C*-algebra of compact operators
Let H be a separable infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. The algebra K(H) of compact operators on H is a norm closed subalgebra of L(H). It is also closed under involution; hence it is a C*-algebra.
Though K(H) does not have an identity element; an approximate identity for K(H) can be easily displayed. To be specific, H is isomorphic to the space of square summable sequences l^{2}; we may assume that
For each natural number n let H_{n} be the subspace of sequences of l^{2} which vanish for indices
and let
be the orthogonal projection onto H_{n}. The sequence {e_{n}}_{n} is an approximate identity for K(H).
The quotient of L(H) by K(H) is the Calkin algebra.
C*-enveloping algebra
Given a B*-algebra A with an approximate identity, there is a unique (up to C*-isomorphism) C*-algebra E(A) and *-morphism π from A into E(A) which is universal, that is every other B*-morphism π': A → B factors uniquely through π. E(A) is called the C*-enveloping algebra of the B*-algebra A.
Of particular importance is the C*-algebra of a locally compact group G. This is defined as the enveloping C*-algebra enveloping algebra of the group algebra of G. The C*-algebra of G provides context for general harmonic analysis of G in the case G is non-abelian. In particular, the dual of locally compact group is defined to the primitive ideal space of the group C*-algebra. See spectrum of a C*-algebra.
von Neumann algebras
von Neumann algebras, known as W* algebras before the 1960s, are a special kind of C*-algebra. They are required to be closed in a topology which is weaker than the norm topology. Their study is a specialized area of functional analysis in itself.
C*-algebras and quantum field theory
In quantum field theory, one typically describes a physical system with a C*-algebra A with unit element; the self-adjoint elements of A (elements x with x* = x) are thought of as the observables, the measurable quantities, of the system. A state of the system is defined as a positive functional on A (a C-linear map φ : A → C with φ(u u*) > 0 for all u∈A) such that φ(1) = 1. The expected value of the observable x, if the system is in state φ, is then φ(x).
Properties of C*-algebras
C*-algebras have a large number of properties which are technically convenient. These properties can be established by use the continuous functional calculus or by reduction to commutative C*-algebras. In the latter case, we can use the fact that the structure of these is completely determined by the Gelfand isomorphism.
- Any *-morphism between C*-algebras has norm ≤ 1.
- The algebraic quotient of a C*-algebra by a closed proper two-sided ideal is a C*-algebra in a unique way.
- The set of elements of a C*-algebra A of the form x*x forms a closed convex cone. This cone is identical to the elements of the form x x*. Elements of this cone are called non-negative (or sometimes positive, even though this terminology conflicts with its use for elements of R.)
- The set of self-adjoint elements of a C*-algebra A naturally has the structure of an partially ordered vector space; the ordering is usually denoted ≥. In this ordering, a self-adjoint element x of A satisfies x ≥ 0 iff x is non-negative. Two self-adjoint elements x and y of A satisfy x ≥ y if x - y ≥ 0.
- Any C*-algebra A has an approximate identity. In fact, there is a directed family {e_{λ}}_{λ ∈ I} of self-adjoint elements of A such that
- In case A is separable, A has a sequential approximate identity.
References
- A. Connes, Noncommutative geometry, Academic Press, 1994. This book is widely regarded as a source of new research material, providing much supporting intuition. ISBN 0-121-85860-X
- J. Dixmier, Les C*-algèbres et leurs représentations, Gauthier-Villars, 1969. This is a somewhat dated reference, but is still considered as a high-quality technical exposition. It is available in English from North Holland press.
- G. Emch, Algebraic Methods in Statistical Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory, Wiley-Interscience, 1972. Mathematically rigorous reference which provides extensive physics background.