British Army

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Template:British Army The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. In contrast to the Royal Navy, Royal Marines and Royal Air Force, the British Army does not include "royal" in its title, because of its roots as a collection of disparate units, many of which themselves do bear the "royal" prefix. The British Army has taken part in campaigns throughout the world, and has a long and distinguished history in warfare. Today the Army is one of the most technologically advanced land forces in the world, and is deployed in many of the world's war zones as part of a fighting force, and in United Nations peacekeeping forces.

History

See main article, History of the British Army

Foundation

Prior to the English Civil War in 1642, there was no standing army in England or Scotland. Troops were raised by the King when required, a development of the feudal concept of fief (in which a lord was obliged to raise a certain quota of knights, men at arms and yeomanry, under greater control of the King). After the Civil War, Parliament assumed control of the Army, and standing companies based on Cromwell's New Model Army formed the concept of the first regiments. The Restoration of Charles II saw the Model Army kept as a standing force, and the King raised further regiments loyal to the Crown. On January 26th, 1661 Charles II issued the warrant that officially founded the British Army.

Bill of Rights

This period in British history saw the Union of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain. In an effort to control the powers of the monarch, Parliament passed the Bill of Rights 1689 to prevent a standing army in peacetime without the consent of Parliament. To this day, annual continuation notices are required for the British Army to remain legal in times of peace. However, Parliament still does not control the use of the army (only the monarch, and his/her government gives commands and declares war). The last King to lead his troops into battle was King George II at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743.

British Empire

From around 1692 until at least 1914, the United Kingdom was the dominant military and economic power in the world. The British Empire expanded in this time to include colonies and Dominions throughout the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australasia. Although the Royal Navy is widely regarded as being vital for the rise of Empire, and British dominance in the world, the British Army played an important role in colonisation. Firstly, the British Army provided garrisons for the colonies, protecting them against foreign powers, and hostile natives. Secondly, the troops also helped capture strategically important territories for the British, allowing the British Empire to expand throughout the globe.

The British Army fought American colonists in the American Revolutionary War; Irish rebels in the 1798 rebellion; the Chinese in the First and Second Opium Wars; Indian princely forces and British East India Company mutineers in the Indian Mutiny; the Boers in the Boer Wars; and Irish separatists in the Anglo-Irish War.

European wars

Despite its increasingly global commitments, Britain's backdoor was still unstable, and many wars on the European continent were fought with various opponents. As well as foreign powers, Britain was still not politically stable at home, with uprisings to support the direct heirs of James II, who had been deposed in the Revolution of 1688. The Jacobite Risings ended at the Battle of Culloden, the last land battle on British soil.

On the continent, British foreign policy was to contain aggression by its competitor powers such as France and Spain. The territorial ambitions of the French led to the War of the Spanish Succession and the Napoleonic Wars. Russian activity led to the Crimean War.

World Wars

By 1914, the United Kingdom's dominance of the world had been challenged by numerous other powers, notably Germany. The UK was allied with France (by the Entente Cordiale) and Russia, and when war broke out in 1914, the British Army sent the British Expeditionary Force to France and Belgium to prevent Germany from occupying these countries. The War would be the most devastating in British military history, with over 900,000 men killed and over 2 million wounded. In the early part of the war, the professional force of the BEF was decimated and, by turns, a volunteer (and then conscripted) force replaced it. Major battles included the Battle of the Somme. Advances in technology saw the advent of the tank and aircraft which were to be decisive in future battles. Trench warfare dominated strategy, and the use of chemical and poison gases added to the devastation.

In 1939, World War II broke out with the German invasion of Poland. British assurances to the Polish led the British Empire to declare war on Germany, allied with France. Again an Expeditionary Force was sent to France, only to be hastily evacuated as the German forces swept through the Low Countries and across France in 1940. Only the Dunkirk evacuations saved the entire Expeditionary Force from capture. Later, however, the British would have success defeating the Italians and Germans at the Battle of El Alamein in North Africa, and in the D-Day invasions of Normandy. In the Far East, the British Army battled the Japanese in Burma. World War II saw the British army develop its Commando units including the Special Air Services based, in part, on the success of German stosstruppen in breaking tactical deadlock in the First World War.

1945-1990

After the end of World War II, the British Empire declined with the independence of India, and other colonies in Africa and Asia. Accordingly the strength of the British military was reduced, in recognition of Britain's reduced role in world affairs. However, a large deployment of British troops remained in Germany, facing the threat of Soviet invasion. The Cold War saw massive technological advances in warfare, and the Army saw more technological advanced weapons systems installed.

Despite the decline of the British Empire, the Army was still deployed around the world, fighting in the Korean War, the Suez crisis of 1956, and colonial wars in Oman and Malaysia. In 1982 the British Army, alongside the Royal Marines helped to recapture the Falkland Islands during the Falklands War against Argentina.

Since 1969, the Army has been heavily deployed in Northern Ireland, to support the Royal Ulster Constabulary (later the Police Service of Northern Ireland) in their conflict with loyalist and republican paramilitary groups. The locally-recruited Ulster Defence Regiment was formed, later becoming the Royal Irish Regiment in 1992. Over 700 soldiers were killed during the Troubles. Following the PIRA ceasefires between 1994 and 1996 and since 1997, demilitarisation has taken place as part of the peace process, much reducing the military presence in the area.

1990-present

File:British gulf war.jpg
British soldiers training during the Gulf War

The ending of the Cold War saw a 40% cut in manpower, significantly reducing the size of the Army. Despite this, the Army has been deployed in an increasingly global role. In 1991, the United Kingdom was the second largest contributor to the coalition force that fought Iraq in the Gulf War. Later the Army would see service in the former Republic of Yugoslavia in the Bosnia War and the Kosovo War. In 2003, the United Kingdom was the only other major contributor to the United States led invasion of Iraq.

The Army has also been deployed in many peacekeeping operations, such as in Sierra Leone and in the war against terrorism. Some peacekeeping operations are under United Nations mandates. The SAS unit of the British Army is specifically trained for anti-terror operations, and fought in Afghanistan in 2001. A squadron of SAS troops is always present in the UK mainland to respond to terrorist attacks.

There has been a reduction in the number of troops deployed in Northern Ireland since the Good Friday Agreement was signed in 1998. In 2005, after the PIRA announced an end to armed conflict in Northern Ireland, it was announced that the British Army would dismantle posts in the province and withdraw many troops.

The Army today

For equipment, see Modern equipment and uniform of the British Army

Statistics

British Army statistics
Personnel (Regular Army) 112,700
Personnel (Territorial Army) 40,000+
Main Battle Tanks 386 Challenger 2
Infantry fighting vehicles 575 Warrior
Armoured Personnel Carriers 4,000+
Land Rovers 15,000
Artillery 400
Aircraft 290

Current deployments

Country Dates Deployment Details
Afghanistan 2001- One Light Infantry battalion (roulement) British troops have been based in Afghanistan since the US-led invasion there in 2001. The infantry battalion forms part of NATO's International Security Assistance Force. It is expected that 16 Air Assault Brigade will deploy to the country in 2006.
Belize 1981- British Army Training and Support Unit Belize British troops have been based in Belize since the country gained independence from the UK in 1981. Until 1994 Belize's neighbour, Guatemala claimed the territory, and British troops were based in Belize to provide a deterrent force
Bosnia 1995- One Light Infantry battalion (roulement) British troops are based in Bosnia as peacekeepers under UN Security Council resolutions.
Brunei 1962- One battalion from the Royal Gurkha Rifles and Army Air Corps flight Centre of the Army's jungle warfare school.
Canada 1972- British Army Training Unit Suffield Training centre in the Alberta prairie. Regular exercises every year.
Cyprus 1960- Two resident infantry battalions, Royal Engineers, 16 Flight Army Air Corps and Joint Service Signals Unit at Ayios Nikolaos The UK retains two Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus after the island's independence. The bases serve as forward bases for deployment in the Middle East. British forces are also deployed with UN forces.
Falkland Islands 1982- An infantry company group and a Engineers Squadron Constant occupation since 1833, except brief period in 1982 when Argentina invaded. Previously a platoon-sized Royal Marines Naval Party served as garrison. After 1982 the garrison was enlarged, and bolstered with an RAF base.
Germany 1945- 1st (UK) Armoured Division as part of British Forces Germany British forces remained in Germany after the end of World War II. Forces declined considerably after the end of the Cold War, although the lack of accommodation in the UK means forces will continue to be based in Germany.
Gibraltar 1704- One infantry battalion British Army garrison is provided by an indigenous regiment, the Royal Gibraltar Regiment, which has been on the Army regular establishment since the last British regiment left in 1991.
Kenya British Army Training and Liaison Staff Kenya The Army has a training centre in Kenya, under agreement with the Kenyan government. It provides training facilities for three infantry battalions per year
Kosovo 1999 3,500 troops After the Kosovo War in 1999, the British Army led the NATO deployment in Kosovo to restore peace to the province. Since then, the UK has withdrawn some forces, as other nations provided troops..
Northern Ireland 1969- 8,100 troops First deployed after communal violence broke out between Catholics and Protestants. They were initially welcomed by the Catholic community as a protection against Protestant mobs but most eventually came to oppose their continued presence, following the events of Bloody Sunday. The Army became involved in a conflict with the IRA, smaller republican splinter groups and loyalist terrorists. 763 soldiers have been killed in Northern Ireland since 1969, mostly in Belfast and Armagh. Counter-terrorist experience in Ulster later proved useful in Iraq.
Sierra Leone 1999 around 100 The British Army were deployed to Sierra Leone, a former British colony, in 1999 to aid the government in quelling violent uprisings by militiamen, under United Nations resolutions. Troops remain in the region to provide military support and training to the Sierra Leone government.
Iraq 2003- 8,500 troops As part of Operation Telic (Gulf War 2), the British Army participated in the invasion of Iraq. Following the decision for continued security operations, the UK commands the Multi-National Division (South-East) with a headquarters unit, National Support Element, and a combat brigade (at the moment 4 Armoured Brigade), along with troops from Italy, Norway, Romania, Denmark, the Netherlands, Czech Republic, Portugal, and Lithuania. A large number of Territorial Army soldiers have been used for a variety of tasks, both as individuals serving and as formed units.
Rest of Middle East 1990 3,700 troops Since the Gulf War 1 in 1991, the UK has had a considerable military presence in the Middle East. Besides Iraq, there are also an additional 3,500 troops in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, as well as regular training missions in Oman.


Equipment

Firearms

P226 Sig-Sauer Pistol

Browning L9A1 Pistol

MP5 Sub-Machine Gun

L85 A1 Carbine

L85 A2 Assault Rifle

L86 Light Support Weapon

L96 Sniper Rifle

L115A1 LRR Sniper Rifle

L7 GPMG "Gimpy"

2-inch Medium Mortar

L16 81mm Mortar

MILAN Anti Tank Weapon

LAW Anti Tank Weapon

Armour

Alvis Challenger 2 Main Battle Tank

Alvis Scorpion Armoured Combat Reconnaisance Vehicle

Alvis Scimitar Armoured Combat Reconnaisance Vehicle

Alvis Sabre Armoured Combat Reconnaisance Vehicle

Alvis Warrior Armoured Personal Carrier

Alvis Saxon Armoured Personal Carrier

Alvis Spartan Armoured Personal Carrier

Alvis Striker Anti-Armour Vehicle

GKN FV 430 Armoured Personal Carrier and derivatives

Alvis Samson Armoured Mineclearer

Alvis Samaritan Armoured Ambulance

Logistics

Land Rover Truck Utility Light (TUL)

Land Rover Truck Utility Medium (TUM)

Land Rover Battlefield Ambulance (BFA)

Alvis Supacat All Terrain Mobile Platform (ATMP)

Hagglund BV206

Harley Davidson MT350E Motorcycle

Honda R250 Motorcycle

Oshkosh Heavy Equipment Transporter (HET)

Bedford 14 tonner

Leyland 4 tonner

Bedford 8 tonner

Pinzgauer 716M

Artillery

Alvis MLRS

BAE Systems 105 mm Light Gun

Alvis AS90

MBDA Rapier missile System

Alvis Starstreak HVM

Aircraft

Westland Lynx Helicopter

Westland Gazelle Helicopter

Westland Apache Longbow Helicopter

Bell 212

Britten-Norman Islander

Landing Craft

Alvis Mk 5 Assault Boat

Vickers Rigid Raider

Vickers Ramped Landing Craft Logistic

Vickers Combat Support Boat

Vickers Landing Craft Vehicle

Vickers Mexeflote


Formation and structure

See main article: Structure of the British Army

The structure of the British Army is complex, due to the different origins of its various constituent parts. In terms of the nature of its servicemen, it is divided into the Regular Army (full-time professional soldiers) and the Territorial Army (part-time paid soldiers). In terms of its military structure it is divided into corps (administrative groupings by common function), and divisions and brigades (large formations, somewhat fluid in nature).

The regiment is in some respects the most important unit of the British Army. It is the largest "permanent" tactical unit in most corps, although it is only an administrative and ceremonial grouping of battalions in the infantry. Typically, a regiment or battalion consists of around 700 soldiers and is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel. Many infantry regiments today consist of only one regular battalion, although many also contain another Territorial Army battalion.

A typical battalion or regiment follows a structure similar to the following:

Sections can be subdivided into two fire teams for tactical purposes.

Battlegroups

The main tactical formation in the British Army is the battlegroup. This is a mixed formation of armour, infantry, artillery, engineers and support units, and is structured according to whatever task it is called on to perform ; it is formed around the core of either an armoured regiment or infantry battalion, and has other units added or removed from it as necessary. A battlegroup will typically consist of between 600 and 700 soldiers under the command of a Lt. Colonel.

Recruitment

The Army mainly recruits within the United Kingdom, and normally has a recruitment target of around 25,000 soldiers per year. Low unemployment in Britain has resulted in the Army having difficulty in meeting its target, and in the early years of the 21st century there has been a marked increase in the number of recruits from other (mostly Commonwealth) countries, who as of mid-2004 comprised approximately 7.5% of the Army's total strength. In July 2004 there were 5,620 foreign soldiers from 42 countries in the Army (not counting over 3,000 Nepalese Gurkhas). After Nepal, the nation with most citizens in the British Army is Fiji, with 1,895, followed by Jamaica with 960; soldiers also come from more prosperous countries such as Australia and South Africa.

In 2003, nearly 10,000 teenagers joined the army, including more than 3000 16-year-olds.[1]

Oath of Allegiance

All soldiers must take the Oath of Allegiance on joining the Army. Those who believe in God use the following words:

I swear by Almighty God that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, her heirs and successors and that I will as in duty bound honestly and faithfully defend Her Majesty, her heirs and successors in person, crown and dignity against all enemies and will observe and obey all orders of Her Majesty, her heirs and successors and of the generals and officers set over me. [2]

Others replace the words "swear by Almighty God" with "solemnly, sincerely and truly declare and affirm".

Flags and ensigns

File:Army Flag.gif
The non-ceremonial flag of the British Army. Sometimes the word "Army" in gold letters appears below the badge.

The British Army does not have its own specific ensign, unlike the Royal Navy, which uses the White Ensign, and the RAF, which uses the Royal Air Force Ensign. Instead, the Army has different flags and ensigns, for the entire army and the different regiments and corps. The official flag of the Army as a whole is the Union Flag, flown at ratio 3:5. A non-ceremonial flag also exists, which is used at recruiting events, military events and exhibitions. Whilst at war, the Union Flag is always used, and this flag represents the Army on the Cenotaph in Whitehall, London (the UK's memorial to war dead). A British Army ensign also exists for vessels commanded by a commissioned officer, the Blue Ensign defaced with the Army badge. However, there are currently no commissioned vessels in the Army.

Each regiment also its own flags, known as Colours - the Regimental Colour and the Queen's Colour. There is great variation in the different regimental colours. Typically the colour has the regiment's badge in the centre.

Ranks and insignia

Template:Ranks and Insignia of NATO/Army/BlankTemplate:Ranks and Insignia of NATO/Army/United Kingdom
Abbreviation FM Gen. Lt-Gen. Maj-Gen. Brig. Col. Lt-Col. Maj. Capt. Lt. 2nd Lt.
  • 1 Honorary/War time rank.
Template:Ranks and Insignia of NATO Armies/OR/BlankTemplate:Ranks and Insignia of NATO Armies/OR/United Kingdom

See also

British Army Casualties during Operation TELIC

External links

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