Bernoullis equation

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See Bernoulli differential equation for an unrelated topic in ordinary differential equations.

In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's equation, derived by Daniel Bernoulli, describes the behavior of a fluid moving along a streamline. The original form, for incompressible flow, is:

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle {v^2 \over 2}+gh+{p \over \rho}=\mathrm{constant} }
v = fluid velocity along the streamline
g = acceleration due to gravity on Earth
h = height from an arbitrary point in the direction of gravity
p = pressure along the streamline
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \rho} = fluid density

These assumptions must be met for the equation to apply:

  • Inviscid flow − viscosity (internal friction) = 0
  • Steady flow
  • Incompressible flowFailed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \rho} = constant.
  • Generally, the equation applies along a streamline. For irrotational flow, it applies throughout the entire flow field.

The decrease in pressure simultaneous with an increase in velocity, as predicted by the equation, is often called Bernoulli's principle.

The equation is named for Daniel Bernoulli although it was first presented in the above form by Leonhard Euler.

A second, more general form of Bernoulli's equation may be written for compressible fluids, in which case, following a streamline, we have:

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle {v^2 \over 2}+ \phi + w =\mathrm{constant} }

Here, Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \phi} is the gravitational potential energy per unit mass, which is just Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \phi = gh } in the case of a uniform gravitational field, and Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle w } is the fluid enthalpy per unit mass, which is also often written as Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle h } (which conflicts with our use of Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle h} in these notes for "height"). Note that Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle w = \epsilon + \frac{p}{\rho} } where Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \epsilon } is the fluid thermodynamic energy per unit mass.

The constant on the right hand side is often called the Bernoulli constant and denoted Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle b } . For steady inviscid adiabatic flow with no additional sources or sinks of energy, Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle b } is constant along any given streamline. Even more generally when Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle b } may vary along streamlines, it still proves a useful parameter, related to the "head" of the fluid (see below).

Derivation

File:BernoullisLawDerivationDiagram.png
A streamtube of fluid moving to the right. Indicated are pressure, height, velocity, and cross-sectional area.

Let us begin with the Bernoulli equation for incompressible fluids.

The equation can be derived by integrating the Euler equations, or applying the law of conservation of energy in two sections along a streamline, ignoring viscosity, compressibility, and thermal effects. One has that

the work done by the forces in the fluid + decrease in potential energy = increase in kinetic energy.

The work done by the forces is

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle F_{1} s_{1}-F_{2} s_{2}=p_{1} A_{1} v_ {1}\Delta t-p_{2} A_{2} v_{2}\Delta t. \;}

The decrease of potential energy is

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle m g h_{1}-m g h_{2}=\rho g A _{1} v_{1}\Delta t h_{1}-\rho g A_{2} v_{2} \Delta t h_{2} \;}

The increase in kinetic energy is

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{1}{2} m v_{2}^{2}-\frac{1}{2} m v_{1}^{2}=\frac{1}{2}\rho A_{2} v_{2}\Delta t v_{2} ^{2}-\frac{1}{2}\rho A_{1} v_{1}\Delta t v_{1}^{2}.}

Putting these together, one gets

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p_{1} A_{1} v_{1}\Delta t-p_{2} A_{2} v_{2}\Delta t+\rho g A_{1} v_{1}\Delta t h_{1}-\rho g A_{2} v_{2}\Delta t h_{2}=\frac{1}{2}\rho A_{2} v_{2}\Delta t v_{2}^{2}-\frac{1}{2}\rho A_{1} v_{1}\Delta t v_{1}^{2}}

or

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{\rho A_{1} v_{1}\Delta t v_{1}^{ 2}}{2}+\rho g A_{1} v_{1}\Delta t h_{1}+p_{1} A_{1 } v_{1}\Delta t=\frac{\rho A_{2} v_{2}\Delta t v_{ 2}^{2}}{2}+\rho g A_{2} v_{2}\Delta t h_{2}+p_{2} A_{2} v_{2}\Delta t.}

After dividing by Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Delta t} , Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \rho} and Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A_{1} v_{1}} (= rate of fluid flow = Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A_{2} v_{2}} as the fluid is incompressible) one finds:

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{v_{1}^{2}}{2}+g h_{1}+\frac{p_{1}}{\rho}=\frac{v_{2}^{2}}{2}+g h_{2}+\frac{p_{2}}{\rho}}

or Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{v^{2}}{2}+g h+\frac{p}{\rho}=C} (as stated in the first paragraph).


Further division by g implies

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{v^{2}}{2 g}+h+\frac{p}{\rho g}=C.}

A free falling mass from a height h (in vacuum), will reach a velocity

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle v=\sqrt{{2 g}{h}},} or Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle h=\frac{v^{2}}{2 g}} .

The term Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{v^2}{2 g}} is called the velocity head.

The hydrostatic pressure or static head is defined as

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p=\rho g h } , or Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle h=\frac{p}{\rho g}} .

The term Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{p}{\rho g}} is also called the pressure head.

A way to see how this relates to conservation of energy directly is to multiply by density and by unit volume (which is allowed since both are constant) yielding:

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle v^2 \rho + P = constant } and

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle mV^2 + P*volume = constant }

The derivation for compressible fluids is similar. Again, the derivation depends upon (1) conservation of mass, and (2) conservation of energy. Conservation of mass implies that in the above figure, in the interval of time Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Delta t } , the amount of mass passing through the boundary defined by the area Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A_1 } is equal to the amount of mass passing outwards through the boundary defined by the area Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A_2 } :

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle 0 = \Delta M_1 - \Delta M_2 = \rho_1 A_1 v_1 \, \Delta t - \rho_2 A_2 v_2 \, \Delta t } .

We apply conservation of energy in a similar manner: It is assumed that the change in energy of the volume of the streamtube bounded by Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A_1 } and Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A_2 } is due entirely to energy entering or leaving through one or the other of these two boundaries. Clearly, in a more complicated situation such as a fluid flow coupled with radiation, such conditions are not met. Nevertheless, assuming this to be the case and assuming the flow is steady so that the net change in the energy is zero, we have

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle 0 = \Delta E_1 - \Delta E_2 }

where Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Delta E_1 } and Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Delta E_2 } are the energy entering through Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A_1 } and leaving through Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A_2 } , respectively.

The energy entering through Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A_1 } is the sum of the kinetic energy entering, the energy entering in the form of potential graviational energy of the fluid, the fluid thermodynamic energy entering, and the energy entering in the form of mechanical Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p\,dV } work:

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Delta E_1 = \left[ \frac{1}{2} \rho_1 v_1^2 + \phi_1 \rho_1 + \epsilon_1 \rho_1 + p_1 \right] A_1 v_1 \, \Delta t }

A similar expression for Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Delta E_2 } may easily be constructed. So now setting Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle 0 = \Delta E_1 - \Delta E_2 } we obtain

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle 0 = \left[ \frac{1}{2} \rho_1 v_1^2+ \phi_1 \rho_1 + \epsilon_1 \rho_1 + p_1 \right] A_1 v_1 \, \Delta t - \left[ \frac{1}{2} \rho_2 v_2^2 + \phi_2\rho_2 + \epsilon_2 \rho_2 + p_2 \right] A_2 v_2 \, \Delta t }

Let us rewrite this as:

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle 0 = \left[ \frac{1}{2} v_1^2 + \phi_1 + \epsilon_1 + \frac{p_1}{\rho_1} \right] \rho_1 A_1 v_1 \, \Delta t - \left[ \frac{1}{2} v_2^2 + \phi_2 + \epsilon_2 + \frac{p_2}{\rho_2} \right] \rho_2 A_2 v_2 \, \Delta t }

Now, using our previously-obtained result from conservation of mass, this may be simplified to obtain

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{1}{2}v^2 + \phi + \epsilon + \frac{p}{\rho} = {\rm constant} \equiv b }

which is the sought solution.

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