- For the American music critic and journalist, see Harold Charles Schonberg.
Arnold Franz Walter Schoenberg, (the anglicized form of Schönberg—Schoenberg changed the spelling officially when he became a U.S. citizen) (September 13, 1874 – July 13, 1951) was a composer, born in Vienna, Austria. He is particularly remembered as one of the first composers to embrace atonal motivic development, and for his twelve tone technique of composition using tone rows. He was also an important music theorist and an influential teacher of composition.
Arnold Schoenberg was largely self-taught, taking lessons only with the composer Alexander von Zemlinsky, who was to become his first brother-in-law. In his twenties, he lived by orchestrating operettas while composing works such as the string sextet Verklärte Nacht ("Transfigured Night") in 1899. He later made an orchestral version of this, which has come to be one of his most popular pieces. Both Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler recognized Schoenberg's significance as a composer, Strauss when he encountered Schoenberg's Gurrelieder, and Mahler after hearing several of Schoenberg's early works. Mahler adopted Schoenberg as a protégé and worried about who would look after him after his death. Schoenberg, who criticized Mahler's first several symphonies, was nevertheless influenced by Mahler's art, championed his work and considered Mahler a "saint."
The summer of 1908, when his wife Mathilde left him for a young Austrian painter, Richard Gerstl, marked a distinct change in Schoenberg's work. It was during the absence of his wife that he composed "You lean against a silver-willow" (German: Du lehnest wider eine Silberweide); the first piece without any reference at all to a key. Also in this year he completed one of his most revolutionary compositions, the String Quartet No. 2, whose first two movements, though chromatic in color, use traditional key signatures, yet whose final two movements, set to poems by German mystical poet Stefan George, weaken the links with traditional tonality daringly (though both movements end on tonic chords, and the work is not yet fully non-tonal) and, breaking with several centuries of string-quartet practice, incorporate a soprano vocal line.
Another of his most important works from this atonal or pantonal period is the highly influential Pierrot Lunaire, op. 21, of 1912, a cycle of expressionist songs set to a text by Albert Giraud that was unlike anything that preceded it. Utilizing the technique of Sprechstimme, or speak-singing recitation, the work pairs a female singer, in a Pierrot costume, with a small ensemble of 5 (nowadays sometimes 6) musicians, which plays a different instrumental combination in each of the songs.
Later, Schoenberg was to create the dodecaphonic or twelve-tone (also known as twelve-note) method of composition (which later grew into serialism, even though he, himself, is not considered a serialist). This technique was taken up by many of his students, who consistuted the so-called Second Viennese School. They included Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Hanns Eisler, all of whom were profoundly influenced by Schoenberg. He excelled as a teacher of music, partly through his method of engaging with, analyzing, and transmitting the methods of the great classical composers, especially Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, and Brahms, partly through his focus on bringing out the musical and compositional individuality of his students. He published a number of books, ranging from his famous Harmonielehre (Theory of Harmony) to Fundamentals of Musical Composition, many of which are still in print and still used by musicians and developing composers.
He was forced into exile by the Nazis in 1933 and emigrated to Paris, where he reaffirmed his Jewish faith () (having converted to Lutheranism in 1898), and then to the United States. His first teaching position in the United States was at the Malkin Conservatory in Boston. He was then wooed to Los Angeles, where he taught at the University of Southern California and the University of California, Los Angeles, both of which later named a music building on their respective campuses Schoenburg Hall  .
During this final period he composed several notable works, including the difficult Violin Concerto, op. 36 (1934/36), the Kol Nidre, op. 39, for chorus and orchestra (1938), the Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte, op. 41 (1942), the haunting Piano Concerto, op. 42 (1942), and his memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, A Survivor from Warsaw, op. 46 (1947). He was unable to complete his opera Moses und Aron (1932/33), which was one of the first works of its genre to be written completely using dodecaphonic composition. In 1941, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. He died in 1951.
Works and ideas
To understand why Schoenberg composed the music that he did, it is useful to begin with his own statement: "Had times been 'normal' (before and after 1914) then the music of our time would have been very different."
Schoenberg, as a Jewish intellectual, was passionately committed to the concept of unshaken adherence to an "Idea" (such as the concept of an inexpressible God) and the pursuance of Truth. He saw the development of music accelerating through the works of Wagner, Strauss and Mahler to a state of saturation. If music was to regain a genuine and valid simplicity of expression, as in the music of his beloved Mozart and Schubert, the language must be renewed.
These were the same years when the Western world discovered abstract painting and psychoanalysis in the same city. Many intellectuals at the time felt that thought had developed to a point of no return, and that it was no longer possible honestly to go on repeating what had been done before. Between 1901 (Gurrelieder) and 1910 (Five Pieces for Orchestra) his music changed more rapidly than anyone else's at any other time. When he had written his quartet opus 7 and his Chamber Symphony opus 9, he imagined he had arrived at a mature personal style which would serve him for the future. But already in the second string quartet, opus 10 and the Three Piano Pieces opus 11, he had to admit that the saturation of added notes in harmony had reached a stage when there was no meaningful difference between consonance and dissonance. For a time Schoenberg's music became very concentrated and elliptical, as he could see no reason to repeat and develop.
World War I brought a crisis in his development. Military service disrupted his life. He was never able to work uninterrupted or over a period of time, and as a result he left many unfinished works and undeveloped "beginnings". After the war he worked at evolving a means of order which would enable his musical texture to become simpler and clearer, and this resulted in the "method of composition with twelve tones" in which the twelve pitches of the octave are regarded as equal, and no one note or tonality is given the emphasis it occupied in classical harmony. It was the equivalent in music of Albert Einstein's discoveries in Physics, and Schoenberg announced it characteristically, during a walk with his friend Josef Rufer, when he said "I have today made a discovery which will ensure the supremacy of German music for the next hundred years".
This remark, much misquoted and misunderstood, was probably made with Schoenberg's customary wry and ironic humour, referring to the collapse of the dominant political position of the German-speaking world in previous years, and also emphasising his desire to stand with Mozart and Bach.
In the following years he produced a series of instrumental and orchestral works showing how his method could produce new classical music which did not copy the past. The climax was to be an opera Moses und Aron, of which he wrote over two-thirds but which he was unable to complete, perhaps for psychological reasons. The music ends at the point where Moses cries out his frustration at being unable to express himself. There is little doubt that by this time Schoenberg had come to see himself as a kind of prophet too.
When he settled in California, he wrote several works in which he returned to keyed harmony, but in a very distinctive way, not simply re-using classical harmony. This was in accordance with his belief that his music evolved naturally out of the past. One of his sayings was "my music is not really modern, just badly played."
It is worth noting that Schoenberg was not the only composer (or even the first) to experiment with the systematic use of all twelve tones. Both the Russian composer Nikolai Roslavets and Schoenberg's fellow Austrian Josef Matthias Hauer developed their own twelve-tone systems quite independently at around the same time as Schoenberg, and Charles Ives experimented with twelve tone techniques substantially earlier. However, Schoenberg's system was by far the most important and influential.
However, much of his work was not well received. In 1907 his Chamber Symphony No. 1 was premiered. The audience was small, and the reaction to the work lukewarm. When it was played again, however, in a 1913 concert which also included works by Alban Berg, Anton Webern and Alexander von Zemlinsky, some of the audience began to shout out abuse. Later in the concert, during a performance of some songs by Berg, fighting broke out, and the police had to be called in. Schoenberg's music had made a break from tonality, which greatly polarised responses to it: his followers and students saw him as one of the most important figures in music, while critics hated his work, on the whole.
Even today Schoenberg's method remains controversial, many people refusing to consider it as music at all. Those who do listen to it unprejudiced sometimes come to love it deeply. Schoenberg himself was said to be a very prickly and difficult man to know and befriend. In one of his letters he said "I hope you weren't stupid enough to be offended by what I said," and he rewarded conductors such as Otto Klemperer who programmed his music by complaining repeatedly that they didn't do more. On the other hand, among those who are considered his disciples he inspired absolute devotion. Even strongly individualistic composers such as Alban Berg and Anton Webern displayed an almost slavish selflessness and willingness to serve him.
Schoenberg was also a painter of considerable individuality, whose pictures were considered good enough to exhibit alongside those of Franz Marc and Wassily Kandinsky, and he wrote extensively: plays and poems, as well as essays not only about music but about politics and the social/historical situation of the Jewish people.
Schoenberg suffered from triskaidekaphobia (fear of the number thirteen); it is said that the reason his late opera is called Moses and Aron, rather than Moses and Aaron (the correct spelling with two As) is because the latter spelling has thirteen letters in it. He was born (and, it turned out, died) on the thirteenth of the month, and thought of this as a portent. He once refused to rent a house because it had the number 13, and feared turning 76, because its digits add up to thirteen. In an interesting story, it is believed that he feared Friday, July 13, 1951, as it was the first Friday the 13th of his 76th year. He reportedly stayed in bed that day preparing for what he thought as his death day. After begging her husband to wake up and "quit his nonsense," his skeptical wife was shocked to find that her husband in fact had died that day he had long feared, as he uttered the word "harmony" and died. His time of death was 11:47 p.m., 13 minutes until midnight.
Books and further reading
- Auner, Joseph. A Schoenberg Reader. Yale University Press. 1993. ISBN 0300095406.
- Brand, Julianne; Hailey, Christopher; and Harris, Donald, editors. The Berg-Schoenberg Correspondence: Selected Letters. New York, London: W. W. Norton and Company. 1987. ISBN 0393019195.
- Schoenberg, Arnold. Structural Functions of Harmony. (Translated by Leonard Stein.) New York, London: W. W. Norton and Company. 1954, 1969 (revised). ISBN 0393004783.
- Schoenberg, Arnold (translated by Roy E. Carter). Harmonielehre (translated title Theory of Harmony). Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. Originally published 1911. Translation based on Third Ed. of 1922, published 1978. ISBN 0520049454.
- Schoenberg, Arnold (edited by Leonard Stein). Style and Idea. London : London, Faber & Faber . Some translations by Leo Black; this is an expanded edition of the 1950 Philosophical Library (New York) publication edited by Dika Newlin. The volume carries the note Several of the essays...were originally written in German [and translated by Dika Newlin] in both editions.
- Schoenberg, Arnold (edited by Gerald Strang and Leonard Stein). Fundamentals of Musical Composition. Belmont Music Publishers
- Schoenberg, Arnold. Die Grundlagen der musikalischen Komposition. Universal Edition
- Schoenberg, Arnold. Preliminary Exercises in Counterpoint. Los Angeles: Belmont Music Publishers 2003
- Shawn, Allen. Arnold Schoenberg's Journey. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux. 2002. ISBN 0374105901.
- Weiss, Adolph (March-April 1932). "The Lyceum of Schonberg", Modern Music 9/3, 99-107
- Verklärte Nacht for string sextet (1899)
- Gurre-Lieder for soloists, chorus and orchestra with text by Jens Peter Jacobsen (1900-1901, 1913)
- Kammersymphonie No. 1 (Chamber Symphony No. 1), op. 9 (1906)
- Quartet No. 2 F-Sharp minor (with soprano), op. 10 (1907)
- Five Pieces for Orchestra, op. 16 (1909)
- Sechs Kleine Klavierstücke, op. 19 for solo piano (1911)
- Pierrot Lunaire op. 21, with text by Albert Giraud (1912)
- Moses und Aron (Moses and Aaron) (1930/32, unfinished opera)
- Suite for piano, op. 25 (1921/23)
- Violin Concerto, op. 36 (1936)
- Kammersymphonie No. 2 (Chamber Symphony No. 2), op. 38 (1909/39)
- Piano Concerto, op. 42 (1942)
- A Survivor from Warsaw, op. 46 (1947)
- Arnold Schoenberg Center in Vienna
- List of Links (compiled by Schoenberg's grandson Randol)
- Complete Schoenberg Discography
- Schoenberg's Paintings and Drawings
- A Century of New Music in Vienna, with many photos, maps, and links to audio files
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