19 number
19 (nineteen) is the natural number following 18 and preceding 20.
Template:Numbers 10s | |
Cardinal | nineteen |
Ordinal | nineteenth |
Factorization | prime |
Divisors | 1, 19 |
Roman numeral | XIX |
Binary | 10011 |
Hexadecimal | 13 |
In mathematics
Nineteen is the 8th smallest prime number. The sequence continues 23, 29, 31, 37... 19 is the seventh Mersenne prime exponent.
It is also a Keith number, because it recurs in a Fibonacci-like sequence started from its base 10 digits: 1, 9, 10, 19...
With respect to divisibility, nineteen has a very simple test: 19 divides 100a + b if and only if it divides a + 4b.
Nineteen is a centered triangular number, centered hexagonal number, and an octahedral number.
Every positive integer is the sum of at most nineteen fourth powers (see Waring's problem).
The decimal expansion of 1/19 has a period of maximum length: 18 digits.
Nineteen is a Heegner number and a strictly non-palindromic number.
In science
- The atomic number of potassium.
In astronomy,
- Messier object M19, a magnitude 8.5 globular cluster in the constellation Ophiuchus
- The New General Catalogue object NGC 19, a barred spiral galaxy in the constellation Andromeda
- The Saros number of the solar eclipse series which began on -2333 June 15 and ended on -1035 August 1. The duration of Saros series 19 was 1298.1 years, and it contained 73 solar eclipses.
- The Saros number of the lunar eclipse series which began on -2031 March 24 and ended on -733 May 11. The duration of Saros series 19 was 1298.1 years, and it contained 73 lunar eclipses.
In music
"19" is a 1985 hit song by Paul Hardcastle, with a strong anti-war message, based on 19 being the average age of soldiers in the Vietnam war.
Another acclaimed song with an anti-war sentiment is "I Was Only 19 (A Walk in the Light Green)", by the group Redgum. It reached number one on the Australian charts in 1983.
Other songs with the number in their titles include "Nineteen" by the Old 97's and "Hey, Nineteen" by Steely Dan.
Nineteen has been used as an alternative to twelve for a division of the octave into equal parts. This idea goes back to Salinas in the sixteenth century, and is interesting in part because it gives a system of meantone tuning, being close to 1/3 comma meantone.
"19th Nervous Breakdown" is a song by the Rolling Stones.
In other fields
Nineteen is
- The nineteenth state to enter the Union was Indiana.
- Part of the name of a breakfast cereal: Product 19.
- The Soviet submarine K-19 was the first Soviet nuclear ballistic submarine
- I-19 is the designation for a US interstate highway in Arizona.
- 19 years is very close to 235 lunations. See Metonic cycle.
- Historical years: A.D. 19, 19 B.C., or 1919
- A significant recurring number in the Dark Tower novels by author Stephen King.
- In golf the 19th hole is the clubhouse bar
- References to 19 in some way related to or connected with Islam:
- The number of angels guarding Hell according to the Qur'an: "Upon it is nineteen" (74:30)
- The number of surat Maryam in the Qur'an
- The number of letters in the basmala formula "In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate" in Arabic
- A key number in the unorthodox theories of Dr. Rashad Khalifa, a biochemist and Quran Alone Muslim from the USA, about the Qur'an
- The Bahá'í calendar is structured according to nineteens (containing 19 months of 19 days each, etc.); the Báb and his disciples formed a group of 19.
- Nineteen sometimes has been considered significant in astrology or esoteric religion because it is the sum of the number of the constellations of the zodiac (12) and the number of the classically-known "planets" (7, including the sun and moon).
- Nineteen is also the standard size of a Go Board
In fiction
In Stephen King's The Dark Tower series, nineteen is a number of mystical significance, as the characters come to encounter it in some form everywhere they turn. King was nineteen-years-old when he began writing this magnum opus, which he didn't finish until almost thirty years later. In the books, the number 19 comes to denote a sense of unreality and foreboding, making the characters' world seem as unreal to them as to the reader.
External link
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