1966 in Canada
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- Premier of Alberta - Ernest Manning
- Premier of British Columbia - W.A.C. Bennett
- Premier of Manitoba - Duff Roblin
- Premier of New Brunswick - Louis Robichaud
- Premier of Newfoundland - Joey Smallwood
- Premier of Nova Scotia - Robert Stanfield
- Premier of Ontario - John Robarts
- Premier of Prince Edward Island - Walter Shaw then Alex B. Campbell
- Premier of Quebec - Jean Lesage then Daniel Johnson, Sr.
- Premier of Saskatchewan - W. Ross Thatcher
- January 1 - The Canada Pension Plan and the Quebec Pension Plan both begin operation
- March 4 - The Munsinger Affair is Canada's first major political sex scandal
- March 12 - Bobby Hull sets the record for the most goals in an NHL season
- June 5 - The Union Nationale under Daniel Johnson, Sr. are elected in Quebec.
- June 16 - Daniel Johnson, Sr., becomes premier of Quebec, replacing Jean Lesage
- July 28 - Alexander B. Campbell becomes premier of Prince Edward Island, replacing Walter Shaw
- October 1 - The CBC becomes the first Canadian television network to broadcast in colour.
- October 14 - Montreal inaugurates its metro system (see Montreal Metro).
- October 17 - The Montreal Metro opens
- December 31 - The Centennial flame in front of Parliament Hill is lit
- The Revolutionary Strategy and the Role of the Avant-Garde outlining the strategy of the FLQ is written.
- Grey Cup - Saskatchewan Roughriders win 29-14 over the Ottawa Rough Riders
- Vanier Cup - St. Francis Xavier X-Men win 40-14 over the Waterloo Lutheran Golden Hawks
- Stanley Cup - Montreal Canadiens win 4-2 over the Detroit Red Wings
Arts and literature
- New works
- Cold Mountain. Singing Hands Series 3 by B. P. Nichol
- The Circle Game by Margaret Atwood
- Expeditions by Margaret Atwood
- Speeches for Doctor Frankenstein by Margaret Atwood
- See 1966 Governor General's Awards for a complete list of winners and finalists for those awards.
- Stephen Leacock Award: George Bain, Nursery Rhymes to Be Read Aloud by Young Parents with Old Children
- Vicky Metcalf Award: Fred Savage
- February 27 - Donal Logue, actor
- March 25 - Jeff Healey, musician
- April 24 - David Usher, musician
- May 2 - Belinda Stronach, politician
- May 12 - Anne Ottenbrite, swimmer
- May 23 - Gary Roberts, hockey player
- June 18 - Kurt Browning, figure skater
- June 26 - Kirk McLean, hockey player
- September 10 - Joe Nieuwendyk, hockey player
- September 21 - Wilhelm Schroeder, musician
- September 27 - Gerry Byrne, politician
- October 25 - Wendel Clark, hockey player
- December 1 - Larry Walker, baseball star
- December 21 - Kiefer Sutherland, actor