1840 1841 1842 - 1843 - 1844 1845 1846
1810s 1820s 1830s - 1840s - 1850s 1860s 1870s
18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar).
- February 6 - The first minstrel show in the United States The Virginia Minstrels opens (Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City).
- February 11 - Giuseppe Verdi's opera I Lombardi premieres in Milan
- May 18 - The Disruption of the Church of Scotland took place in Edinburgh
- May 22 - The first major wagon train headed for the northwest sets out with one thousand pioneers from Elm Grove, Missouri on the Oregon Trail.
- July 19 - The SS Great Britain is launched from Bristol.
- August 15 - Tivoli Gardens, one of the oldest still intact amusement parks in the world, opened in Copenhagen, Denmark.
- October 13 - In New York City, Henry Jones and 11 others found B'nai B'rith (the oldest Jewish service organization in the world).
- November 28 - Ka La Ku'oko'a: Hawaiian Independence Day. The Kingdom of Hawai`i was officially recognized by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.
- December 17 - First publication of Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol.
- James Joule quantifies the conversion of work into heat
- In Barbados, the first black man, Samuel Jackson Prescod, is elected to House of Assembly
- Danish government re-establishes althing in Iceland as an advisory body
- First tunnel under Thames is finished
- Argentina supports Rosas of Uruguay and begins a siege of Montevideo
- Quaternions are discovered by William Rowan Hamilton.
- The Economist is first published.
- Bishop's University is founded.
- Abbeville is founded by descendants of Acadians from Nova Scotia.
- January 10 - Frank James, American outlaw (d. 1915)
- January 29 - William McKinley, 25th President of the United States (d. 1901)
- April 4 - William Jackson, photographer
- April 15 - Henry James, American writer (d. 1916)
- May 21 - Charles Albert Gobat, Swiss politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1914)
- June 3 - King Frederick VIII of Denmark (d. 1912)
- June 9 - Bertha von Suttner, Austrian writer and pacificist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1914)
- June 15 - Edvard Grieg, Norwegian composer (d. 1907)
- June 30 - Sir Ernest Satow, British diplomat and scholar (d. 1928)
- July 29 - Johannes Schmidt, German linguist (d. 1901)
- August 1 - Robert Todd Lincoln, American statesman and businessman (d. 1926)
- November 27 - Cornelius Vanderbilt II, American railway magnate (d. 1899)
- December 11 - Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch, German bacteriologist (d. 1910)
- Jang Seung-eop, Korean painter (d. 1897)
- January 11 - Francis Scott Key, American lawyer and lyricist (b. 1779)
- March 21 - Robert Southey, English poet (b. 1774)
- March 25 - Robert Murray M'Cheyne, Scottish clergyman (b. 1813)
- March 27 - Karl Salomo Zachariae Von Lingenthal, German jurist (b. 1769)
- April 15 - Noah Webster, American lexicographer (b. 1758)
- April 17 - Samuel Morey, American inventor (b. 1762)
- June 6 - Friedrich Hölderlin, German writer (b. 1770)
- July 7 - John Holmes, American politician (b. 1773)
- December 18 - Thomas Graham, Lord Lynedoch, British Governor-General of India (b. 1748)
- William Abbot, English actor (b. 1798)
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