1834 1835 1836 - 1837 - 1838 1839 1840
1800s 1810s 1820s - 1830s - 1840s 1850s 1860s
18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar).
- January 10 - DePauw University founded in Greencastle, Indiana
- January 26 - Michigan is admitted as the 26th U.S. state
- February 8 - Richard Johnson becomes the first Vice President of the United States chosen by the United States Senate
- February 11 - American Physiological Society organizes in Boston
- February 13 - Rowland Hill at a UK government inquiry into postal reform discloses the idea of carrying letters in a separate sheet which folded to become an envelope and the idea of "a bit of paper" which could be affixed to a letter to flag that postage had been paid.
- February 15 - Knox College founded in Galesburg, Illinois
- February 25 - First US electric printing press patented by Thomas Davenport
- March 4 - Martin Van Buren succeeds Andrew Jackson as the President of the United States of America.
- March 4 - Chicago is granted a city charter by Illinois.
- May 10 - Panic of 1837 (Global economic crisis): New York City banks fail, and unemployment reaches record levels.
- June 3 - The London Hippodrome opens in Bayswater
- June 5 - The city of Houston, Texas is granted a city charter.
- June 20 - Queen Victoria, monarch of the United Kingdom ascends to the throne
- June 30 - England abolishes the use of pillory
- July 13 - Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom moves into the first Buckingham Palace in London and is the first British monarch to live there.
- July 20 - Euston Station, London's first railway stations, is opened
- July 29 - Spanish government auctions the church property
- August 16 - Dutch sack of the fortress of Bonjol, ending the Padri War
- October 21 - General Thomas Jessup captures Osceola in pretext of negotiations
- November 7 - In Alton, Illinois, abolitionist printer Elijah P. Lovejoy is shot to death by a mob (supporters of slavery) while he was attempting to protect his printing shop from being destroyed a third time.
- December 4 - Date of the Confrontation at Montgomery's Tavern.
- November 8 - Formation of Mount Holyoke Seminary, first US college founded for women
- In the United States, financial crisis and economic depression begun by the Panic of 1837.
- In the Canadas, William Lyon Mackenzie leads the Upper Canada Rebellion and Louis-Joseph Papineau leads the Lower Canada Rebellion.
- Samuel Morse patents telegraph
- Great_Moon_Hoax – New York Sun claims that astronomer John Herschel has found life in the Moon
- British Piracy Act
- January 2 - Mily Balakirev, Russian composer (d. 1910)
- February 5 - Dwight L. Moody, American evangelist (d. 1899)
- March 1 - William Dean Howells, American writer, historian, editor, and politician. (d. 1920)
- March 7 - Henry Draper, American physician and astronomer (d. 1882)
- March 18 - Grover Cleveland, President of the United States (d. 1908)
- March 23 - Charles Wyndham, English actor and theatrical manager (d. 1919)
- April 5 - Algernon Charles Swinburne, English poet (d. 1909)
- April 17 - John Pierpont Morgan, American financier and banker (d. 1913)
- April 21 - Fredrik Bajer, Danish politician and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1922)
- May 9 - Adam Opel, German engineer and industrialist (d. 1895)
- May 27 - Wild Bill Hickok, American gunfighter (d. 1876)
- June 22 - Paul Morphy, American chess player (d. 1884)
- June 22 - Paul Bachmann, German mathematician (d. 1920)
- July 4 - Carolus-Duran, French painter (d. 1917)
- August 24 - Théodore Dubois, French composer (d. 1924)
- November 14 - Lucas Barrett, English naturalist (d. 1862)
- November 23 - Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Dutch physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1923)
- December 26 - George Dewey, U.S. naval officer (d. 1917)
- Osman Pasha, Turkish general and statesman (d. 1900)
- Sarah Lockwood Pardee, American builder of the Winchester Mystery House (d. 1922)
- January 20 - John Soane, British architect (b. 1753)
- January 23 - John Field, Irish composer (b. 1782)
- February 7 - Gustav IV Adolf, ex-King of Sweden (b. 1778)
- February 10 - Alexander Pushkin, Russian author (b. 1799)
- February 19, Georg Büchner, German playwright (b. 1813)
- March 31 - John Constable, English painter (b. 1776)
- June 14 - Giacomo Leopardi, Italian writer (b. 1798)
- June 20 - King William IV of the United Kingdom (b. 1765)
- October 5 - Hortense de Beauharnais, Queen of Holland and mother of Napoleon III of France (b. 1783)
- November 7 - Elijah P. Lovejoy, American abolitionist (b. 1809)
- December 13 - Saint Herman of Alaska
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